IMPORTANT SOURCE OF INFORMATION FOR PAINTINGS
- Mudrarakshasa - Sanskrit play was written by Vishakhadutta – mentions many types of Paintings during the 4th century period.
- Brahmanical Literature – the reference to the art of paintings with the representation of myths
- Buddhist Literature – mentions different styles of paintings with various base and themes.
- Vinaya Pitaka – 3rd – 4th century BC – houses containing paintings
- The pre-historic paintings are generally executed in rocks in the caves.
- The major themes are Animals like elephant, rhinoceros, cattle, snake, deer, etc.. and other natural elements like plants.
- The pre-historic paintings are categorised into three phases – Paleolithic, Mesolithic and Chalcolithic.
- Used minerals for pigments Eg: ochre or geru. They used minerals in different colours.
- Major Themes: group hunting, grazing, riding scenes, etc..
- The colours and size of the paintings have been evolved through the ages.
- Examples: Bhimbetka caves, MP; Jogimara caves, Chattisgarh; Narsingarh, MP
- The wall paintings in India has existed from the 2nd century BC to Medieval times.
- They are also referred to as Mural paintings as they are painted on the walls of solid structures.
- Natural caves and rock-cut chambers are the predominant places for wall paintings
- Major Themes: Hinduism, Buddhism and Jainism
- Examples: Ajanta caves, Ellora Caves, Bagh cave paintings, Ravan Chhaya rock paintings, etc.
Wall Painting Places
· From 4th to 8th century AD under different rulers;
· Only Buddhism;
· Medium of Paintings: Mineral and vegetable dyes;
· Tempera style (use of pigments)
· Also Fresco Paintings
· From 7th century AD
· Paintings related to all three religions
· Later paintings in Gujarati style
· Tightly modelled and stronger outline
· More earthly and human
· Mostly secular in nature
· 7th century AD
· Fresco Paintings
Sittanavasal Cave paintings
· Around the 9th and 10th century
· Not only on walls but also on pillars and ceilings
· Mostly paintings in Jain temples
· Mostly in temple walls
· Vijayanagara period
· Religious and secular themes
- Miniature paintings are characterised with small and detailed paintings
- Human figures are mostly seen in side profile, bulging eyes, slim waist, pointed nose, etc..
- Different colours were used for different characters and the variety of base was used.
- Often painted on paper, clothes palm leaves, etc.,
- Mostly developed after the 11th century AD and mostly concentrated on eastern and western regions.
- The arrival of Muslims changed the characteristics of miniature paintings to a great extent. The major changes have been earthy tones, the absence of primary colours, detached appearances, etc.,
- The characteristics of Miniature painting was varied in different regions of the country.
11th – 12th AD
· Sinuous lines and subdued tones of colour
· Lonely single figures and rarely finds group figures
· Majorly influenced by Buddhism
Manuscript of Astasahasrika prajnaparamita (perfection of wisdom)
WESTERN INDIAN SCHOOL
12th – 16th AD
· Enlarged Human organs like eyes, breasts, hips.
· Figures are flat with eye protruding into space
· Majorly influenced by Jainism
Manuscripts of Kalpasutra in Devasano Pado Bhandar at Ahmedabad
DELHI SULTANATE PERIOD
13th – 16th AD
· Synthesis of Indigenous and Persian elements
· Illustrated Manuscripts
· Traditional elements
Nimatnama during Nasir Shah period
16th – 19th AD
· Two Persian Masters – Mir Sayyed Ali and Abdul Samad Khan (Humayun Period)
· Synthesis of Indigenous and Safavid school of Persian Painting
· Naturalism with fine and delicate drawing
· High aesthetic merit
· Aristocratic and secular in nature
· Under Jahangir reached its peak
· Lost significance during Aurangzeb period
Gulistan of Sadi
· Rich and brilliant colours
· Persian influence
Portrait of Burhan Nizam Shah II of Ahmednagar
· Rich colours
· Presence of trees and animals
· Use of gold colour (Persian influence)
Najum-al-ulum (Stars of Science)
· Persian Influence
· Rich and bright colours
Lady with the Myna Bird, Dublin
· Treatment of ethnic types. Costumes, jewellery, flora, fauna, landscape and colours
A Lady with the maid, Vilaval Ragini
18th – 19th AD
· Bold painting, shading techniques
· Use of pure and brilliant colours
Coronation of Rama in wooden painting
RAJASTHANI SCHOOL (17th – 19th AD) (Western India)
· Use of contrasting colours
· Refinement of drawings
· Bold colours
· Colours are bright and contrasting
· Text of painting is written in black on the top against yellow ground
Aranya Kanda, Saraswati Bhandar
· Red colour brilliant border
· Overlapping and semi-naturalistic trees.
· Rising sun in golden colour
Bhairavi Ragini Painting, Allahabad Museum
18th – 19th AD
· Most of the space is occupied by hilly Jungle
· Themes of Tiger and Bear hunt are very popular
· Fairly large number of portraits of Jaipur Rulers
· Executed in primitive and vigorous folk style
· Completely uninfluenced by Mughal style
Ragamala (collection of Kumar Sangram Singh)
· Have greater Mughal Influence
· Themes of Religion and Court Scenes
Krishna & Radha Painting
· Delicate drawing
· Fine modelling of human figures
· Use of nature to the great extent
· Bani Thani (Monalisa of India) by Nihâl Chand
· Radha and Krishna, Kishangarh
PAHARI SCHOOL (Himalayan States)
· Vigorous and bold lines
· Strong glowing colours
Devi rides on a Chariot
· Soft and cool colours
· Inspired by the naturalistic style of Mughals
Portrait of Raja Bishen Singh of Guller
· They are identical in style to the portraits of Raja Sansar Chand of Kangra.
· In these paintings, the faces of women in profile have the nose almost in line with the forehead, the eyes are long and narrow and the chin is sharp
KULU - MANDI
· Bold drawings
· Use of dark and dull colours
· Has distinct folk character
The lady and the Crane
18th – 19th AD
· The outline drawing was rendered with a stylus on the palm-leaf
· Charcoal or ink was rubbed on the drawing
Gita Govind, Palm Leaf Painting
- The folk paintings have been existing since ancient times and the styles and patterns have the huge diversity in various regions of the country.
- Most of the folk paintings are pictorial representations and the subject varies from religion to natural things and also the day to day activities.
- Folk paintings generally use vibrant and natural colours with various natural ground substances.
· Bright colours with contrasts or patterns
· Traditionally done by women
· Use of tribal motifs and bright earthly colours
· Vivid expression of daily and social life
· Generally in walls of village houses
· Painting done on canvas
· Manifested by rich colourful motifs and designs
· Mostly mythological depiction
· Ritualistic art practised in temples and sacred groves of Kerala
· Representation of deities like Kali and Lord Ayyappa is made on the floor.
Eastern India (Calcutta)
· Use of watercolour on mill paper
· General themes are religion, social sentiments, etc..
· Sharp pointed bamboo as pen and the base is cotton fabric
· Vegetable dyes as colours
· Also known as Snake painting (use of snake motifs)
· Paintings executed on jute and paper
· Cotton canvas as the base
· Influence of Buddhism
· Use of different colours for different scenes
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