- Usually 'Subject' comes before the 'Predicate' , as you can see in above examples. But at times , 'Predicate' comes before the 'Subject' in some kind of sentences. In the below examples, Predicate (verb) is coming before the Subject :
1)Here comes Rita: Rita(subject) is coming after the verb/Predicate(comes)
2) Now comes the sound of the Movie: Here also subject is coming after predicate.
3)There appears to be large number of people who are supporting Manish.
Can you find out the error in this example 3 given here?
- The Error is in ''Appears'' . Appear is the correct verb to use here.
- Because verb 'appear' here is referring to 'Large number of people'.
- It is not referring to Manish according to the sentence structure. So for' Large number of people' , Plural form of verb will be used.
Parts of Speech
- In any language, parts of speech are the most important. In English Grammar , these are called as the basic building blocks .
- Without the sound knowledge and understanding of the parts of speech you can not proceed in reading English Properly or expressing yourself correctly.
- No correct sentence can be formed without the proper knowledge of parts of speech. English words are categorized into several types or parts of speech based on the use and functions.
- There are eight parts of speech in English Language which are as follows :
Why Parts of Speech is important :
- Until and unless you are well acquainted with the Noun, Pronoun, Verb, Prepositions etc , you cannot command in English Language.
- Reading comprehension, Sentence connector, sentence correction Everything may improve if you will be able to quickly distinguish subject from direct object and objects of preposition etc.
- Parts of Speech refers to all words in the English language and how they can be grouped into eight different categories, depending upon their function.
Phrases and Clauses
- Phases and clause holds a major significance in English Grammar. Most of the times in examination the errors are in the phrase and clause of the sentence.
- A phrase is a group of words which stand together as a single unit. The phrase may have a noun , but it does not have a subject doing a verb(action) .
- Because a phrase does not contain a subject doing a verb , so it can't convey a complete message. Look at the below examples :
- A ten foot long flag
- Moving behind a car
- The lost puppy
- As you can see , above statements are not conveying any complete thought or idea. Hence they all are phrases.
- There are many types of phrases which are :
- Noun Phrases: A noun phrase contains noun and the words which modify that noun , for example : A sick little boy
- Verb Phrase: A verb phrase is one which contains verb and it's modifiers . for example : He was eager to know the story
- Infinitive Phrase : An infinitive phrase is a noun phrase that begins with an infinitive. for example , I went to Kerela to explore new places.
- Prepositional Phrases : A phrase which begins with a preposition and can act as a noun, an adjective or an adverb , is known as a Prepositional Phrase. For example : It rained for a while
As you can see examples above (bold part) are not conveying any complete thought. Now let's see some of the common errors of Phrases :
1- I am looking forward to seeing you soon. (Incorrect)
I’m looking forward to see you soon. (Correct)
- A clause is a group of words that includes a subject and a verb. It means a clause has a verb which is actively doing a verb(action) . A clause can be distinguished from a phrase, which does not contain a subject and a verb.
- Clause are of two types : Independent Clause and Dependent clause
- An independent clause is one which expresses a complete thought and can be a standalone sentence.While a dependent clause is usually a supporting part of a sentence, and it cannot stand by itself as a meaningful sentence/idea.
Example: 1. Rita went to market after she watched the movie.
In this sentence , 'Rita went to market' is a complete sentence in itself hence it is a independent clause. While 'After she watched the movie' is a dependent clause as it can not be a complete sentence or idea, which means it is dependent on the first sentence.
- Verb is defined as a word which is used to describe an action, state, or occurrence and forming the main part of the predicate of a sentence. Verbs always express activity , whether mental activity or physical activity.Verbs are a necessary component of all sentences.
- Verbs have two important functions: Some verbs put stalled subjects into motion while other verbs help to clarify the subjects in meaningful ways.
- Some examples of Verb are : Hear ,Listen ,Laugh , Speak , Cry , Eat etc.
- The lady ate the cake ,Here ate is the verb and the word which shows the action of the sentence.
- The woman is lying on the bed .even though the action doesn't show much activity, lying is the verb of the sentence.
- She is a intelligent girl, there is no action but a state of being expressed by the helping verb 'is'.
Most of the other parts of speech do not change their time with respect to the tenses, but verbs change their form. Some verbs are ended by adding 'ed' (Talk - talked) and some verbs end in completely different way (teach-taught). The different forms of verbs show different meanings related to such things as tense (past, present, future), person (first person, second person, third person), number (singular, plural) and voice (active, passive). Verbs are also often accompanied by verb-like words called modals (may, could, should, etc.) and auxiliaries(do, have, will, etc.) to give them different meanings.
Verbs has a relationship with time :
One of the most important things about verbs is their relationship to time. With the form of verb , we can know if something has already happened, if it will happen later, or if it is happening now. For things happening now, we use the present tense of a verb; for something that has already happened, we use the past tense and for something that will happen later, we use the future tense. For example :
- She is dancing (This form of verb is telling that action is currently in progess)
- She danced (This form of verb is telling that action was in past)
- She will dance ( (This form of verb is telling that action will happen in future)
Different types of Verb :
Regular Verb and Irregular Verb :
The verbs like'Dance' used in the sentence ,in which we make past tense by adding -d or -ed are known as regular verbs. For example :
The verbs , in which we do not add -d or -ed to make Past Tense are known as Irregular Verbs , For Example :
Progressive and Perfect Verb :
Apart from regular and irregular verbs , there are also progressive or continuous forms which show that the action takes place over a period of time, and perfect forms which show completion of the action. which are as following :
Usually a subject comes before a verb and an object may come after it. The subject is what does the action of the verb and the object is what receives the action.
For example ,Riya ate a pizza ,
Here Riya is the subject or the one who did the eating and the pizza is the object or what got eaten.
Transitive and Intransitive Verb :
A verb which has an object is called a transitive verb Means the verbs which cannot be used without an object . For example : throw, buy, hit, love.
He throw a stone (Using a stone is a must to define the activity)
A verb which do not require an object are called Intransitive Verbs. For example : go, come, walk, listen.
He walks (We don't need an object to define activity)
Modal Verb :
Modal verbs are those verbs which do not change their form (spelling) and they have no infinitive or participle (past/present). Modal verbs are those verbs which express necessity ,possibility , request etc.
The modal verbs are can,could , must, may, might, will, would, should, ought to . They are used with other verbs to express ability, obligation, possibility, and so on. Below is a list showing the most useful modals and their most common meanings:
|can||to express ability||I can speak a little Russian.|
|can||to request permission/to give permission||Can I open the window? /You can use my car.|
|could||Possibility for something which has already been done||If I had money , I could buy it.|
|may||to express possibility||I may be home late.|
|may||to request permission||May I sit down, please?|
|must||to express obligation||I must go now.|
|must||to express strong belief||She must be over 90 years old.|
|should||to give advice||You should stop smoking.|
|would||to request or offer||Would you like a cup of tea?|
|would||in if-sentences||If I were you, I would say sorry.|
|Ought to||to denote moral duty||We ought o respect our elders.|
|Used to||To denote something that is done in past . but is no longer done||I used to play ludo in my childhood.|
|Dare||To denote Challange||Don't dare to ask favor from me.|
Some common rules and mistakes of Verbs:
1) WriteThe verb write can take two objects. Sometimes this causes problems.
- Incorrect: He wrote me. (The sense of this sentence is completely incorrect.)
- Correct: He wrote to me. (This sentence is conveying the right sense.)
Look at the below examples to be acquaint with the correct usage of verb 'Write' :
We write something. (He wrote a letter.)
We write something to someone. (He wrote a letter to his mother.) (NOT He wrote a letter his mother.)
The verb explain can be followed by two objects – a direct object and an indirect object.
Note that we explain something to someone. (NOT We explain someone something.)
- Incorrect: I shall explain them this.
- Correct: I shall explain this to them.
We suggest something to somebody. We cannot suggest somebody something.
- Incorrect: He suggested me this.
- Correct: He suggested this to me.
The verb oblige takes the preposition to. When you are obliged to do something, you are forced to do it because it is a law, a rule or a duty.
- I felt obliged to help him.
- I am obliged to you for this good turn. (NOT I am obliged of you for this good turn.)
The verb invite can be followed by to or for.
We invite someone to/for something:
- I have invited my uncle and aunt to dinner.
- He invited me for a drink but I politely refused.
The verb tell does not take a preposition.
- Incorrect: He told to me to go.
- Correct: He told me to go.
When ask is followed by two objects, the indirect object (the person) normally comes first, without a preposition.
- Incorrect: She did not ask any question to him.
- Correct: She did not ask him any question.
- Incorrect: I will ask the time to that man.
- Correct: I will ask that man the time.
In Grammar, we use 'Tenses' to define the time of occurring of the action. The tenses in a sentence show the time of an action or state of being as shown by a verb. Actions can take place in Past state, Present state or future state. So there are 3 main types of tenses which are defined as follows:
Present Tense: The actions which are doing presently are classified into 'Present tense'. For example:
- He is eating Pasta. (Presently he is doing this action of eating)
Past Tense: The actions which we have already done are classified into 'Past tense'.
- He ate Pasta (He has already done the action of eating)
Future Tense: The actions which we are going to do/will do/planning to do are termed as 'Future tense' sentences.
- He will eat Pasta (He is going to do the action of eating)
These 3 tenses are split into 4-4 parts, resulting in total 12 types of Tenses, which are described as following:
1) Simple Present Tense:
- If an action has regularity, which means if an action happens every day/every time/every week/every month/every year, then we use 'Simple Present tense for such actions.
- To indicate facts that are universally true.
- Habitual action that happened in past, happening in present and will happen in future
Simple Present Tense
For Singular Subject: This train leaves at eight in the morning.
This train does not leave at eight in the morning.
Does this train leave at eight in the morning ?
For Plural Subject: These girls go dancing class everyday
These girls do not go to dance class everyday
Do these girls go to dance class everyday ?
Catchwords for Simple Present Tense: usually, often, sometimes, seldom, always, rarely, never, every day, every week , every time , on Mondays, etc
2) Present Continuous Tense:
Present continous tense are used when:
- Some action is happening now while speaking and has a definite end as well.
- When some action or plan is already decided and arranged as well to perform it at some time.
Present Continuous Tense
For Singular Subject : She is doing her homework now
She is not doing her homework now.
Is she doing her homework now?
For Plural Subject: They are doing their homework now.
They are not doing their homework now.
|Are they doing their homework now?|
Catchwords for Present continous tense : now, right now, this quarter, etc.
3)Present Perfect Tense:
This tense explains the incident/action that has happened in the past and still it has relevance.
Present Perfect Tense
For Singular Subject: He has completed his graduation in 2014.
He has not completed his graduation in 2014.
Has he completed his graduation in 2014?
For Plural Subject: They have completed their graduation in 2014.
They have not completed their graduation in 2014.
Have they completed their graduation in 2014?
Catchwords for Present Perfect Tense: just, ever, never, already, yet,
4)Present Perfect Continous Tense :
Present Perfect Continuous Tense is used for a situation that has occurred in the past and which continues until that moment.
Present Perfect Continous Tense
For Singular Subject: Riya has been going to dance class since March.
Riya has not been going to dance class since March.
Has Riya not been going to dance class since March ?
For Plural Subject: I have been reading this awesome novel for two months.
I have not been reading this awesome novel for two months.
Have you been reading this awesome novel for two months?
Catchwords for Present Perfect Contionous tense : for, since, lately
5) Simple Past Tense :
To describe an action of the past , we use Simple past tense. In this tense the verb ends with an '-ed' . Also some verbs end differently , for example for 'eat' , we use 'Ate' in simple past tense.
Simple Past Tense
For Singular Subject: Raman went for the movie yesterday.
Raman did not go for the movie yesterday.
Did Raman go for the movie yesterday?
For Plural Subject: They went for the movie yesterday.
They did not go for the movie yesterday.
Did they go for the movie yesterday?
Catchwords for Simple Past Tense : yesterday, last week, last month, this morning (when meaning is past), etc.
6) Past Continous Tense :
Past contionus tense is used in those sentences in which the actions that have already happened in the past and have been completed before the time of mention.These sentences are formed with the help of an auxiliary verb and giving the main verb an 'ing' ending.
Past Continous Tense
For Singular Subject: She was watching TV when he called her
She was not watching TV when he called her.
Was she watching TV when you called her?
For Plural Subject: They were watching the match together.
They were not watching the match together.
Were they watching the match together?
Catchwords for Past Continous Tense : while
7) Past Perfect Tense :
This tense refers to a noncontinuous action that was already completed in the past. Such sentences are formed by using the Simple Past form of the auxiliary verb 'to have', followed by the past participle form of the verb.
Past Perfect Tense
For Singular Subject: He had read this book.
He had not read this book.
Had he read the book?
For Plural Subject: They had done their work.
They had not done their work.
Had they not done their work?
Catchwords for Past Perfect Tense: already, before. by the time
8) Past Perfect Continous Tense :
A continuous action that was completed sometime in the past falls under Past Perfect Continuous tense. Such sentences are framed by using the modal, 'had' + 'been' + the present participle of the verb (-ing).
Past Perfect Continous Tense
For Singular Subject: He had been playing the chess all morning.
He had been playing the chess all morning.
Had he not been playing the chess all morning.
For Plural Subject: They had been surfing net all night .
They had not been surfing net all night.
Had they been surfing net all night?
Catchwords for Past Perfect Continous Tense : for, since
9) Simple Future Tense :
This tense is used for those sentences which refer to the actions which will occur later, in future. This requires a future tense auxiliary verb even though the verb would be unmarked.
Simple Future Tense
For Singular Subject : She will cook tomorrow.
She will not cook tomorrow.
Will she cook tomorrow?
For Plural Subject: All the girls will take part in cooking classes tomorrow.
All the girls will not take part in cooking classes tomorrow.
Will All the girls take part in cooking classes tomorrow?
10)Future Continous Tense:
This tense defines those acts which will be continued at a future point of time. In order to form a future continuous tense sentence, a future auxiliary verb is required followed by a main verb that ends with -ing.
Future Continous Tense
For Singular Subject: He will be going to Shimla next week.
He will not be going to Shimla next week .
Will he be going to Shimla next week ?
For Plural Subject: They will be celebrating her birthday on coming Monday.
They will not be celebrating her birthday on coming Monday.
Will they be celebrating her birthday on coming Monday ?
11) Future Perfect Tense:
This tense is used to express an act that is predicted to be finished within a certain span of time in the future. Such sentences are formed by 'will' + 'have' + 'past participle of the verb'.
Future Perfect Tense
For Singular Subject : She will have gone by the time you reach her home.
She will not have gone by the time you reach her home.
Will she have gone by the time you reach her home ?
For Plural Subject: She will have gone by the time you reach her home.
They will not have gone by the time you reach her home.
Will they have gone by the time you reach her home?
Catchwords for Future Perfect Tense : when, by the time
12) Future Perfect Continous Tense:
This tense form indicates an action that is continuous and, at some point in the future, it will be completed. It is formed using the modal 'will/shall' + 'have' + 'been' + 'the past participle of the verb (-ing)'.
Future Perfect Continous Tense
For Singular Subject : Riya will have been studying English for two hours by the time you arrive here.
Riya will not have been studying English for two hours by the time you arrive here.
Riya will have been studying English for two hours by the time you arrive here.
For Plural Subject: Students will have been playing cricket since morning at this time tomorrow.
Students will not have been playing cricket since morning at this time tomorrow.
Will students have been playing cricket since morning at this time tomorrow?
Catchwords for Future Perfect Continuous Tense: for, by the time
Important Rules of Tenses:
Incorrect: It is raining for two days.
- Correct: It has been raining for two days.
2) Do not get confused between present perfect tense/the past perfect tense and simple past tense. In a sentence, With adverbs of past time like, 'last week', 'last Monday', 'yesterday', 'last night' etc, always use simple past tense. Using Present perfect tense is incorrect in these sentences. Present perfect tense is to denote an action that continued in present too. Past perfect tense is only used to talk about the earlier of two past actions. For example:
- Incorrect: I have seen him yesterday.
- Incorrect: I had seen him yesterday.
- Correct: I saw him yesterday.
Adjectives are the word which qualifies, describes or modifies nouns and pronouns by giving some information about the size, shape, age, colour or material of some object. Adjectives are usually used before the nouns and pronouns. Adjectives cannot be used alone but they make the sentence meaningful by telling something special about the noun and pronoun.Some examples of Adjectives are Good, bitter, small, black, Fat, great etc. To know which adjective should be used where there are some rules which need to be understood properly.
For example :
- I ate the dinner.
- I ate the delicious dinner. (Here Delicious word is adding more information to the word 'Dinner')
If in a sentence, there are more than one adjective to qualify/modify the same noun then we usually use a comma to separate those adjectives. No commas are used to separate the last adjective in the series from the noun it is qualifying. We can use any number of adjectives to qualify a noun. But we cannot put another word between an adjective and the noun it is qualifying.
Types of adjectives
There are different types of adjectives for different usage. Adjectives can be classified in many types, but there are mainly 5 types of Adjectives, which are described as following :
1.Adjectives of quality
Adjectives of quality show the Kind, type or quality of a person or a thing. They are used to specify what is the particular quality of a person or a thing.
- Bhagat Singh was a great person. (Here the adjective great shows a certain quality of Bhagat Singh)
- Kanpur is a large city of Uttar Pradesh (Here the adjective large shows a quality of the Kanpur city)
The adjectives which are formed from proper nouns are generally considered as adjectives of quality. Examples are Indian Economy, Swiss Watches etc.
2.Adjectives of quantity
Adjectives of quantity are used to describe the quantity of things, which are uncountable. They are used in a sentence to answer, 'How much'?
Some examples of adjectives of quantity are "enough, some, any, half, whole, much, little, all, no" etc.
- I need some water.
- He loves her very much.
- You should have enough patience to deal with the things.
3.Adjectives of number
The adjectives which tell us "How many" are known as Adjectives of number .
Some examples of 'adjectives of Number' are "one, two, many, first, tenth, all" etc.
- July is the seventh month of the year
- India has twenty-nine states.
The adjectives which demonstrate or denote which person or thing is being talked about are Demonstrative adjectives. These adjectives answer the question ‘which?’.
Some examples of Demonstrative Adjectives are this, that, these, those and such. This and that are used with singular nouns. These and those are used with plural nouns.
- This girl is talented.
- You should not be friends with such people.
- I love these dresses.
When there is a noun just after Interrogative words 'What, which and whose' then these are termed as Interrogative adjectives.
- Which dress should I wear?
- Whose book is this?
- What type of shows do you like ?
Degrees of AdjectivesThere are three degrees of adjectives which are also called 'Degrees of Comparison'. These are as following :
Positive degree expresses the base form or simple form of an adjective. Comparative form is used to compare between two people or two things. It shows a higher degree of the quality than that is present in the positive degree. The highest degree of quality is expressed by a Superlative degree which expresses the superiority among more than two people or things. For Example
- Riya is a smart girl.
- Riya is smarter than Preeti.
Some common rules and Mistakes in use of Adjectives
Rule 1 : We use adjectives with a verb when some quality of the subject is expressed. We cannot use it with a verb when the action of the verb is to be expressed. For example :
- Incorrect: These flowers smell sweetly
- Correct: These flowers smell sweet.
Rule 2: Use 'to' before superior, inferior, senior, junior, prior, anterior, posterior and prefer. Some students often use 'Than' before these words which
Use 'to' before superior, inferior, senior, junior, prior, anterior, posterior and prefer. Some students often use 'Than' before these words which is wrong. For example :
- Raman is junior to me.
- I prefer tea to coffee.
Rule 3: For comparison of two things, always use the comparative degree of comparison. For example :
- Incorrect: Take the shortest of the two routes.
- Correct: Take the shorter of the two routes.
Rule 4: Below is the very common error which students do in case of adjectives :
- Incorrect: She is more stronger than her sister.
- Correct: She is stronger than her sister.
Rule 5: Farther and further are used in the different sense in a sentence. Farther refers to 'to , at or by a greater distance'.It is used to indicate the extent to which one thing or person is or becomes distant from another. Further means additional/ additional to what already exists or has already taken place, been done. For example :
- Incorrect: Bombay is further from Delhi than Agra.
- Correct: Bombay is farther from Delhi than Agra.
- Incorrect: Thailand is divided into 76 provinces, which are farther divided into over 800 districts.
- Correct: Thailand is divided into 76 provinces, which are further divided into over 800 districts.
Rule 6: Use much and many correctly. Much is used for 'Uncountable things' and Many is used for 'countable things'. For example :
- Incorrect: You have much books.
- Correct: You have many books.
- Incorrect: I have many work to do.
- Correct: I have much work to do.
Rule 7: Make proper use of Last and latest. Latest means ‘the most recent’. Last means ‘the previous one’. For example :
- Incorrect: Tell me the last news.
- Correct: Tell me the latest news.
Rule 8: Use less with uncountable nouns. Use fewer with countable nouns.
- Incorrect: I have less money than you.
- Correct: I have fewer money than you.
Rule 9: Quantifiers like all, both and half go before possessives.
- Incorrect: He wasted his all wealth.
- Correct: He wasted all his wealth.
Rule 10: When there is a comparison of any kind, use comparative or superlative degree only. Use of 'Positive degree' is wrong in such cases. For example :
- Incorrect: She is growing strong and strong everyday.
- Correct: She is growing stronger and stronger everyday.
Rule 11 : Note the pattern: that + adjective + a/an + noun
- Incorrect: I can’t afford that a big car.
- Correct: I can’t afford that big a car.
Rule 12: Use Later and Latter correctly. Later(adverb) is related with time. It means for something to happen in the future. Latter is an adjective to describe the second thing or person when we are talking about two things or two persons.
- Incorrect: Riya has two sisters, Reema and Rekha. The former is a doctor and the later is a lawyer.
- Correct: Riya has two sisters, Reema and Rekha. The former is a doctor and the latter is a lawyer.
- Incorrect: I am thinking to do this work latter as I am going for Movie now.
- Correct: I am thinking to do this work later as I am going for Movie now.
An adverb is a word or phrase which is used to modify the meaning of a verb, an adjective or another adverb. Adverbs are used in a sentence to give us more information about the sentence. They usually express the manner in which something is done. Most of the adverbs end with the common ending –ly. An adverb used to modify an adjective or another adverb usually goes before it.
For example :
- The rain poured heavily and we took shelter under a tree. (Here the adverb 'quickly' is modifying the verb 'poured'.)
- You should go there as quickly as possible. (Here the adverb 'quickly' is modifying the verb 'go'.)
- I had a really great time at the dance party. (Here the adverb 'really' is modifying the adjective 'great'.)
Adverbs are used to carry out many functions in a sentence, such as :
- How: He walks gracefully.
- When: He came here yesterday.
- Where: Will you come here
- To what extent: This dish is extremely good.
Adverbs can also be used to change the meaning of the whole sentence.Mostly when adverbs are used in the beginning of a sentence, they tend to change the meaning of the whole sentence, for example :
- Unfortunately, no one was present there. (It was unfortunate that no one was present there.)
- Probably I am mistaken. ( It is probable that I am mistaken.)
Types of Adverbs
- There are following types of adverb depending on time, place, frequency and manner :
1. Adverbs of time
Adverbs of time are used in a sentence to answer the question 'WHEN'.
Some Examples of Adverb of time are today, yesterday, now, before, daily, already, since, ago, never etc. For example :
- I met him yesterday.
- His father died two years ago.
- I have seen him before.
- They have already come.
- We will have to start now.
2. Adverbs of frequency
Adverbs of frequency are used in a sentence to answer the question ‘how often’.
Some Examples of this kind of adverb are: often, always, once, never, again, seldom, frequently etc.
- We seldom go out on Sundays.
- I have seen him only once.
- He called again this morning.
- We must always try to do our best.
3. Adverbs of place
In a sentence, Adverbs of place are used to answer the question ‘Where’.
Some Examples of Adverbs of place are: here, there, up, down, everywhere, out, in etc.
- She sat down.
- He looked up.
- I searched for him everywhere.
- Come in.
4. Adverbs of manner :
Adverbs of manner answer the question ‘how’ or ‘in what manner’. These kinds of adverbs include nearly all those adverbs which end in -ly.
Some Examples of 'adverbs of manner' are: quickly, carefully, sweetly, clearly, bravely, beautifully, well, fast etc.
- The soldiers fought bravely.
- This essay is well written.
- she walked slowly.
- The baby slept soundly.
5.Adverbs of Condition :
An adverb of condition tells us the condition needed before the main idea comes into effect. (An adverb of the condition often starts with if or unless. For example:
- If it rains, the party will be ruined.
- I will not talk unless you apologize.
6. Adverbs of Certainty :
We use adverbs of certainty to say how sure we are of something.Adverbs of certainty usually go in mid-position.
Examples are: certainly, definitely, clearly, obviously and probably.
- She will probably come.
- The train has obviously been delayed
Rules of Adverb
Rule 1: Adverbs should be placed before or after the word they are modifying. For example :
- I somewhat understand what you are saying (Here the adverb 'Somewhat' modifies the verb 'understand')
In most of the sentences, adverb comes after the verb/adjective/adverb. For example :
- Incorrect: He clearly speaks.
- Correct: He speaks clearly.
Rule 2: When there is an object, the adverb is usually placed after the verb + object.For example :
- Incorrect: I put carefully the vase on the table.
- Correct: I put the vase carefully on the table.
Rule 3: However, adverbs are never positioned between the verb and the object.For example :
- Incorrect: I read quickly the book.
- Correct: I read the book quickly.
Rule 4: Sometimes adverbs are placed at the beginning of a clause.For example :
- Quickly, I changed my opinion.
Rule 5: The adverb only should come immediately before the word it modifies.For example :
- Incorrect: I only solved two problems.
- Correct: I solved only two problems.
Rule 6: Else should be followed by but, not than.For example :
- Incorrect: He did nothing else than devote time to studying.
- Correct: He did nothing else but devote time to studying.
Rule 7: Adverbs never, seldom, nowhere, nothing, hardly, scarcely, barely, rarely, neither are negative in meaning, So be careful not to use ''Double negative'' in a sentence. For example :
- Incorrect: I hardly know nothing about this book. (Hardly and nothing both are negative words, so here it is an error of Double negative.)
- Correct: I hardly know anything about this book. (To correct it, use ''Anything'' in place of 'nothing' )
Rule 8: The adverb 'As' is used after words 'Regard, define, describe, treat, view, know'. The adverb 'As' is not used after words 'Elect, consider, call, appoint, choose, name'. For example :
- Incorrect: It is considered as the worst problem of this area
- Correct: It is considered the worst problem of this area.
Common Errors of Adverbs :
Sometimes students use adjectives when they should use an adverb, For example:
- Incorrect: He behaved very bad on the field trip. (To modify or describe the verb 'behaved', an adverb should be used here. Use of adjective 'Bad' is incorrect here.)
- Correct: He behaved very badly on the field trip.
Good and Well :
Good and well are also confusing words. Most students think that these are same in usage, but this is not true. Good is an adjective which is used to modify Nouns or pronouns (the good boy). On the other hand, 'Well' is an adverb which is used to modify a verb (he listens well) or an adjective(the well-educated boy).
Hard and Hardly :
Hard and hardly look like similar words but both have entirely different meanings. Hard is an adjective which means 'with a great deal of effort'. Hardly is an adverb which means 'very little' or scarcely.
- I work hard.'
- I hardly work.'
Observe that these two sentences are entirely different in meaning.
Too and very :
Too has a different meaning from very. Too is used in the negative sense in a sentence. It means ‘more than enough’ or ‘more than is wanted’. Very is used in the positive sense in a sentence. Very is used for giving emphasis to something in a sentence.
Incorrect: This student is too intelligent.
Correct: This student is very intelligent very intelligent.
An adverb usually comes before the adjective or adverb it is modifying. But adverb Enough is an exception to this rule. Enough goes after the adjective or adverb it is modifying.
The adverb enough is used to modify an adjective. In this case, it goes after the adjective it modifies. For example :
- Incorrect: She is enough old to earn a living
- Correct: She is old enough to earn a living. (Here the adverb enough modifies the adjective old.)
When enough is used as an adjective, it modifies a noun. The adjective enough comes before the noun it is modifying.
- Incorrect: I have bought eggs enough.
- Correct: I have bought enough eggs. (Here the adjective enough modifies the noun eggs.)
Some words are used as both 'Adjective' and ' Adverb'. Which are :
'He's a fast runner.' – Here fast is an adjective.
'He runs fast.' – Here fast is an adverb.
'It was late at night.' – Here late is an adjective.
'We talked late into the night.' – Here late is an adverb.
Now as you know the rules, try to answer the following questions in the comment section. We will review your comments.
A noun is a word for a person, place, or thing or idea. Everything we can see or talk about is represented by a word that names it. That "naming" word is called a Noun. Everything we can name, is a noun. It includes people (e.g., boy, Rita), animals (e.g., cat, cockroach), places (e.g., street, Banglore), objects (e.g., Table, Wire), substances (e.g., Gold, glass), qualities (e.g., Happiness, sorrow), and measures (e.g., inch, pound) etc.
Noun can be classified in to 7 types , which are as follows :
1. Common Noun
2. Proper Noun
3. Collective Noun
4. Abstract Noun
5. Material Noun
6. Countable Noun
7. Uncountable Noun
Now lets understand each of the Nouns one by one.
1. Common Noun
Common noun is also known as Generic Noun. The general name given to a person , place , item or thing is a common noun or we can say Common Noun is the name given in common to person or thing of the same class or kind. We use common nouns everywhere. Common nouns start from Capital word only while appearing at the beginning of a sentence
For Example :
We are planning to go to a restaurant.
Boys love to do adventures things.
As we can see , in above examples , we are not talking about any specific restaurant or any specific boy. We have named both these nouns as a common class. Hence these are the common nouns.
2. Proper Noun
Proper Noun is the opposite of Common Noun. Proper noun refers to the Specific name given to any person , place or thing.Proper noun always begin with capital letters, no matter where they occur within a sentence. Go through the below examples to get a clear idea :
We are planning to go to Pizza Hut.
Raman Loves to do adventures things.
Now , in these sentences we are specifically naming a restaurant and a boy. Here 'Pizza Hut' and 'Raman' , both are proper Noun. Through below table , you can depict differences between Proper noun and common noun :
|Common Noun||Proper Noun|
|bridge||Mahatma Gandhi setu|
|book||War and Peace|
3. Collective Nouns
Collective nouns are the name given to a group of people of similar kind , collection of things of same type. When we want to name a group or collection of similar individulas as a whole , we use collective nouns. In simple words , A collective noun is the word used to represent a group of people, animals, or things. For example :
- A bunch of Grapes
- A pride of Lions
- A class of students
- A flock of birds
- A series of events
- A herd of cattle
Bold words in above examples are acting as a Collective Noun.
The name given to quality , action ,idea , concept or feeling is termed as Abstract Noun. Something which you can’t see,taste, hear or touch.
For example :
- Love, fear, anger, joy, excitement, and other emotions are abstract nouns.
- Courage, bravery, cowardice, and other such states are abstract nouns.
- Desire, creativity, uncertainty, and other innate feelings are abstract nouns.
5. Material Noun
Material noun is the name given to the material, substance or things made up of something . Material nouns are not generally countable means we cannot count them because they are in the forms of liquid, semi-liquid or solid. Nouns in this class are materials like cloth, air, metal, gold, salt, iron, silver, steel, brass, bronze, copper, aluminium, lead, coal, coral, gem, diamond, glass, fibre etc.
For example :
- Cotton dresses are very cheap and comfortable.
- My mom purchased a gold ring for me.
- I drink milk in the silver.
6. Countable Noun
Countable noun is a noun that names the things which are countable and occur in both single and plural forms . The nouns which can be modified by numerals are countable nouns. Simply if we can count something as one , two , three .... that comes under Countable Noun.
There is one chair in this room (in this example, the word 'chair' is singular countable)
There are 10 chairs in the house.(in this example, the word 'chair' is plural and countable).
7. Uncountable Noun
Uncountable noun is a noun that names the things which are not countable. It cannot take plural form. Uncountable noun is also called as mass nouns as we cannot count it.
- There is no more milk in the kitchen.
- Please take good care of your furniture.
- I need some Water
Important Rules for Noun
Now let's go through some important rules of Noun through examples given below:
Incorrect : He gave me very important informations.
Correct : He gave me very important information.
There are some nouns which do not take plural form. They are always used in Singular number.These nouns are uncountable nouns. Following nouns are always used in Singular number :
Machinery , Information , Poetry , luggage , Jewellery ,Knowledge , Percentage etc.
Incorrect : My trouser is dirty.
Correct : My trousers are dirty.
There are some nouns , which are only used in Plural Form . Also these nouns take Plural Verb with them always.Following nouns are always used in Plural number and takes Plural verb with them :
Spectacles , Tongs , pincers, scissors, goggles, gallows, fangs, alms, amends,trousers, pants, particulars, proceeds, regards, riches, savings, troops, thanks, braces, wages, belongings, etc.
Incorrect : Mathematics are an easy subject .
Correct : Mathematics is an easy subject.
There are some form of nouns , which looks as Plural form , but actually they are Singular and hence take Singular verb with them.Following words are singular and takes singular verb with them :
Mathematics ,Politics , News , Politics , Physics , Economics , Atheletics , Innings Etc.
Incorrect : Cattle is grazing in the field
Correct : Cattle are grazing in field .
Some collective nouns , which are Singular in form ( they do not take 's' or 'es' at the end) , but With them always Plural verb is used.
For example : Cattle , People , Police . Poultry , gentry , peasantry. These words always take Plural verb with them.
If in a sentence , if Noun+Preposition + the same noun is given , then this noun will be in singular form. We will not take plural form of them.
For example :
Matches after matches were played between India and Pakistan (Incorrect)
Match after match were played between India and Pakistan. (correct)
To make compound nouns Plural , always add 's' or 'es' to the main word only.
For example :
Possessive nouns are the nouns which show ownership. Possessive nouns refers to something which you own.
- In Singular Possessive nouns , Add apostrophe 's' to the singular word to show possession.
- For example :
1. Car's Engine , Here we are talking about one car.
2. Boy's Book ,Here we are talking about one boy
- When a plural word ends in 's' or 'es' , then do not use 's' after apostrophe in that word. In such words , add only the apostrophe to the end of the word.
For example ,
Cars' engine , Here we are talking about more than one car.
Boys' book , Here we are talking about more than on boy.
- Apostrophe is not used with possessive pronouns.
Your's Faithfully (Incorrect)
Yours Faithfully (Correct)
A pronoun is a word which is used in place of a noun. Pronouns stands for (pro + noun), which means a word that refers to a noun. What exactly does this mean? A noun is a word for a person, place, thing or idea.Some examples of nouns are: Raman, cow, table, and love. Each of these words represents a living or nonliving object or a feeling. A pronoun can be used to replace one of these nouns if you do not want to use the specific noun. For instance,He is a pronoun that can be used in place of Raman, it is a pronoun that can be used in place of cow or table .
But make sure that when a pronoun is used in place of a noun, it must match the number, point of view, and gender of the noun it is replacing.
Types of Pronoun
Pronouns are mainly of 10 types , which are as following :
1. Personal Pronouns :
Personal pronoun are pronouns which includes three persons :
1. First Person (The person speaking) : I , We
2. Second Person (The person spoken to) : You
3. Third Person (The person spoken of ) : He , she , It , They
Subjective case pronouns are pronouns that act as subjects of sentences.These are the versions used for the subjects of verb.For example
- I am your teacher.
- You are my best friend.
Objective case pronouns, are pronouns that act as objects of sentences. These are the versions used when the personal pronouns are objects.For example:
- You should talk to me on this matter.
- He gave him very bad rating.
2. Possessive pronoun :
Possessive pronoun are pronouns which are used to indicate possessions.Possessive pronouns show ownership. The term possessive pronoun covers possessive adjectives and absolute possessive pronouns.
- Take Riya's bag to the school. (Here Riya is a pronoun)
Take her bag to the school ('Her' replaced noun 'Riya' )
Below table depicts subjective personal pronouns , objective personal pronouns and possessive pronouns. It also shows the associated possessive adjectives and absolute possessive pronouns.
Possessive case adjective
Absolute Possessive case pronouns
He , She , It
Him , her , it
His , her , its
His , hers ,its
Third Person (Plural)
3. Reflexive Pronoun :
A reflexive pronoun is used with another noun (or pronoun) when something does something to itself. The reflexive pronouns are myself, yourself, herself, himself, itself, ourselves, yourselves, and themselves.
- Raman tried to solve the tough question himself. (The reflexive pronoun himself tells us that Raman did something to Raman)
- I often ask myself why I left that beautiful city and came here.(The reflexive pronoun is ourself indicates that Raman did something to Raman)
4. Demonstrative Pronoun
Demonstratives pronoun are pronouns which behave either as pronouns or as determiners. The demonstrative pronouns are this ,that ,these ,those ,such.A demonstrative pronoun tells us whether it is replacing something singular or plural and whether that thing(s) is close by or farther away.
- That Brownie which I ate was marvellous! (Here that referring to something which someone just ate)
- Such is my trust. (referring to an explanation which someone has just made)
When Demonstratives pronoun act as determiners , they modify a noun and act as adjectives.
- These books are incredible.
- Those place I can never forget .
5. Indefinite Pronoun
An indefinite pronoun refers to a non-specific person or thing. These pronouns do not substitute nouns but function themselves as nouns.The most common indefinite nouns are all , none , one , many , both etc.
- Everyone wants to get the first position , but only one succeeds
- All of you are being called by the manager.
6. Relative Pronoun
A relative pronoun is used to start a description for a noun. The description can come after the noun to identify it or tell us more information about it.
- Who and whom refer to people.
- Which refers to things.
- That refers to people or things.
- Mr. Sharma , who is your neighbour is sitting beside me at the restaurant.
- My mother gifted me the dress which I liked in the shop.
- I loved those stories that my grandmother used to tell me.
7. Reciprocal Pronouns
Reciprocal pronouns are those which shows a mutual action or relationship. In English, there are two reciprocal pronouns , which are:
- Each other
- One another
Each other is used to denote relationship between only two person
- Riya and Raman gave each other presents on the occasion of farewell ceremony.
When there are more than two persons , we use 'one another':
- All the students of this class support one another.
Reciprocal pronouns can also take possessive forms:
- They borrowed each other’s ideas.
- The scientists in the lab often use one another’s equipment.
8. Interrogative Pronouns :
The pronouns which are ued to ask questions are known as Interrogative pronouns.The main interrogative pronouns are who, whom, whose, which, and what. Apart from these Whoever, whomever, whichever, and whatever are also interrogative pronouns.
- Whose book is this
- Whom have you asked ?
- Who is that new girl ?
- Which of these two bikes is yours ?
9. Distributive Pronoun
The pronouns which separate a person or thing from a group of persons or thing are called distributive pronouns .
Either of , Neither of , Each of , everyone of , any of , one of are distributive pronouns.
- Neither of these two students is good in maths.
- Either of you should come to help me in doing the assignment.
We use Singular verb with distributive Pronouns.
10. Universal Pronoun :
Universal pronouns are those pronoun which are used as a whole. Everbody , somebody , anybody , someone , nobody , all are the examples of universal pronoun.
- Everyone likes Riya as she is a very good girl.
- Many labours are required to built this wall.
Important Rules of Pronoun :
Rule 1 :
Who is used to ask about subject and Whom is used to ask about the object. For example :
- Who won the dance competition ?
- Whom have you asked about the competition ?
Whose is used to ask about the possession or ownership or something. . For example :
- Whose bike is this ?
Which is used when there is a restricted range of answers. What is used more commonly when the range of answers is not restricted . For example :
- Which is the currency of Japan? Yuan or Yen
- What is the currency of Japan ?
Where is used to ask for the particular place , when is used to ask for the time.
- Where are you going ?
- When you will go ?
Rule 2 :
When there are two person or thing , then to denote choice , we use Either of and neither of.
- Neither of you is good in solving puzzles.
- Either of these two men is the owner of bakery shop.
Note : Always use singular verb with 'Either of' , 'neither of' , 'any of' irrespective of the subject.
To denote choice among many persons or things , we use 'One of' and 'Any of' .
- I would like to try one of these dishes in this restaurant.
- The teacher has not given good marks to any of you.
Rule 3 :
When there are all the three persons or two out of three persons coming in a single sentence , which indicates a positive sentence, then order of arrangement of pronouns should be : second person, third person and then First person (231)
- You, he & I have decided to go to Mussorie.
- You and Riya have done a great job.
- He and I are working hard to score good marks.
But if sentence has negative sense then order of arrangement should be First person, second person then Third person.
- I, you & he are responsible for this mishappening .
- You & he have to do this work urgently.
The pronouns who, that & which become singular or plural depending on the subject. If the subject is singular, use a singular verb. If it is plural, use a plural verb.
- He is the only one of those employees who is always on time. (means he is the only person reaching on time)
The word who refers to one (of those employees). Therefore, we use singular verb is.
- He is one of those men who are always on time. (means there are many persons reaching on time, he is one of those)
The word who refers to men. Therefore, we use the plural verb are.
Rule 4 :
After 'Let' , we always use 'objective case of pronoun' .
- Let they go.(Incorrect)
- Let them go. (Correct)
After 'Than' , we always use 'Nominative(Subjective) case of Pronoun'.
Riya is more intelligent than her . (Incorrect)
Riya is more intelligent than she. (Correct)
After 'If' , we always use 'Nominative(Subjective) case of Pronoun'.
If I were her , I would have run in the marathon. (Incorrect)
If I were she , I would have run in the marathon. (Correct)
Rule 5 :
Both , Few , some and many are always used as Plural.
- Both of you have to finish it soon
- Some of my friends are going to the party.
Any & All are used as Singular as well as Plural.
- All of the students are going to the picnic
- All we see is not true.
Rule 6 :
Reflexive pronouns are used when both the subject and the object of a verb are the same person or thing.
For example there is a sentence “Riya pinched.” This is incomplete as it doesn’t say anything about the person who was been pinched. And if we write Riya pinched Riya , then there will be repetition of Riya is creating the confusion as whether it is the same person or different. So we write it as following :
- Riya pinched herself .
– If the object of a preposition refers to a previous noun or pronoun, we use a reflexive pronoun:
- I did it for myself.
The object myself is the same person as the subject I.
- My brother and myself did it. (Incorrect)
- My brother and I did it . (Correct)
Hence , Reflexive pronouns are used only when the subject and object are same in a sentence.
–A reflexive pronoun may also come first in certain cases
- Doubting himself, the man proceeded cautiously.
– When pronouns are combined, the reflexive pronoun will be used as ''we''.
- Riya, Raman, and I have deceived ourselves into believing in Rakesh.
Rule 7 :
Singular pronouns (I, he, she, everyone, everybody, anyone, anybody, no one, nobody, someone, somebody, each, either, neither,etc.) go with singular verbs.
When either , neither , each are followed by 'of' , they always take take singular verbs.
- Each of the girl is pretty.
- Either of us is responsible for this work.
- Neither of them is capable enough to carry out this work.
Rule 8 :
Singular pronouns must remain singular throughout the complete sentence.
- Someone has to take the responsibilty and have to fulfil it well. (Incorrect)
- Someone has to take the responsibilty and has to fulfil it well. (Correct)
Rule 9 :
If two identical parts of speech are connected with either…or/neither…nor/not only… Then we use verb and pronoun according to the nearest subject.
- Neither Raman nor his friends was enjoying the party (Incorrect)
- Neither Raman nor his friends were enjoying the party (Correct)
Rule 10 :
Possessive pronouns his, hers, its, ours, yours, theirs and whose never take apostrophe.
- Your’s truly is grammatically incorrect. Yours truly is the correct word to use.
We hope you have found this module of the series helpful.
Now , try to find out error in the below questions and leave your answers in the comment section. we will review them.
- If I were him , I would not miss the farewell party.
- The two sisters went for the shopping with one another.
- It wasn't me who have used your car .
- All the good things are happening with Riya and I.
- Each of them has to take responsibility for their work.
- Had I known his real motive, I wouldn’t have supported him.
- When the occurrence of one event depends on the occurrence of another event, then we use a Conditional sentence to express it.
- In a conditional sentence, there is an independent clause and a dependent clause. The dependent clause is the clause which almost always begins with “if.”
- In this way, a conditional sentence has two parts, the if–clause and the main clause.The main clause depends on the if-clause.
- A conditional sentence is only a conditional sentence if it has both of these parts.
- Sentences containing the word if are called conditional sentences because they usually express a condition.These clauses express a condition – something which must happen first so that something else can happen.
Apart from if, conditional sentences can also begin with the following words :
- Even if
- Only if
- In case
Now let's understand the examples given below :
- If you invite her, she will come. (You have to invite her , otherwise she won’t come. Here the first thing you need to do is to invite her. If that does not happen, the second thing would not happen)
Some simple examples of conditional sentences are given below :
- If he comes, ask him to wait.
- If it rains, we will get wet.
- If you study hard, you will pass your exam.
We can also make conditional clauses without using 'if'. Look at the examples given below :
- If I had known his real motive, I wouldn’t have supported him.
We can express this sentence without using 'If' : Types of Conditional Sentences
We can classify conditional sentences in following four types :
- The zero conditional
- The type 1 conditional
- The type 2 conditional
- The type 3 conditional
1. The zero conditional
In a zero conditional sentence, we use a present tense in both parts of the sentence.These are used to talk about real and possible situations. The situations which are real and totally depend on the occurrence of the first event. Look at the below examples of type zero conditional sentences :
- If you give respect, you get respect.
- If you heat ice, it melts.
2. Type 1 conditional
Type 1 conditional sentences are used to talk about possible situations and their probable results. In this case, we use a simple present tense in the if-clause and will + infinitive in the main clause.
Understand the sentences given below :
- If I am hungry, I will get something to eat.
- If you are hungry, you can eat an apple.
- If you work hard, you will succeed.
- If you ask him, he will help you.
- If you invite them, they will come.
3. Type 2 conditional
These sentences are used to talk about an unlikely condition and its probable result. In this type of sentences, use Simple past tense in the if-clause and would + infinitive in the main clause. These are used to talk about situations that are unlikely to occur.
- If you asked him, he would help you.
- If you studied hard you would pass your exam.
- If you invited them, they would come.
- I would buy a home if I won the lottery.
Type 2 conditional is used to refer to the present situation or the future situation. However, it suggests that the situation is less probable, improbable or imaginary.
- If you ate too much food, you would fall ill.
In the second conditional, when the verb in the if-clause is a form of be, we use were instead of was. Note that this use of were is possible and recommended with all subjects. Was is also becoming acceptable, but many grammarians still insist that you should use were.
- If she were my daughter, I wouldn’t let her drop out of school. (NOT If she was my daughter, …)
- If I were you, I wouldn’t trust him.
- If they were really interested in the offer, they would contact you.
In some cases, however, if I was is also possible. For example, when are talking about real situations that happened in the past, the use of if I was (or if he /she / it was) is considered more correct.
- If I was in a hurry, I usually skipped my breakfast.
- If she was angry, she would shut herself up in her room.
4. Type 3 conditional
In type 3 conditional sentence, the tense in the ''if clause'' is the past perfect and the tense in the ''main clause'' is the perfect conditional (would have + infinitive). These sentences are used to talk about imaginary or improbable situations. We use third conditional for the past situations that did not happen.
- If you had invited them, they would have come.
- If you had asked him, he would have helped you.
Common Errors in Conditional Sentences :
1. Common Error in Zero Conditional sentences :
In the zero conditional, both clauses are in the present tense. A common mistake is to use ‘will’ in the main clause:
- Incorrect - Water boils when it will reach 100°C.
- Correct - Water boils when it reaches 100°C.
2. Common Error in first Conditional sentences :
The most common mistake is to put ''will'' in the conditional clause. The conditional clause must remain in the simple present tense.
- Incorrect: If you will study more, your English will get better.
- Correct: If you study more, your English will get better.
3. Common Error in Second Conditional sentences :
The most common mistake in second conditional is putting ''would'' in the conditional clause. The conditional clause must be written in the simple past tense.
- Incorrect: If I would win the big prize, I would take you to dinner at a fancy restaurant.
- Correct: If I won the big prize, I would take you to dinner at a fancy restaurant.
4. Common Error in Third Conditional Sentence :
Like the second conditional, the most common mistake for third conditional is putting ''would'' in the conditional clause.
- Incorrect: If she had would have filled the car up with gas, she would not have been late.
- Correct: If she had filled the car up with gas, she would not have been late.
Conditional Sentences: Other Important rules
1. When the condition comes in the first sentence , a comma is usually used after the conditional clause:
For examples :
- If Tommy eats his vegetables, he will be allowed to eat dessert.
- Unless you finish your degree in education, you cannot be hired as a certified teacher.
- When you leave the dog in the house, he tears up the furniture.
2. When the condition comes in the second sentence, no comma is needed :
- You will be allowed to listen to music during class if you promise to complete your work.
- Turn off the computer when you are finished.
3. When both the sentences are negative in conditional sentences, prefer to use 'Unless/Until' instead of 'If':
- If you don't study diligently, you'll never understand this subject. (Wrong usage in formal English)
- Unless you study diligently, you'll never understand this subject. (Correct)
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