Why was the Khilafat Movement Launched?

By Mandeep Kumar|Updated : December 26th, 2022

The Khilafat movement was launched to demand control of the Turkish Sultan or Caliphate over Muslim holy places in the then Ottoman Empire; To subjugate Arab, Syria, Iraq and Palestine to Muslim sovereignty, and for the Caliph to be left with enough territory to defend the Islamic faith.

What was Khilafat Movement?

The Khilafat Movement was a mass movement of Indian Muslims between 1919 and 1920 under the leadership of Muhammad Ali and Shaukat Ali. It was supported by Congress, and Mahatma Gandhi sought to join the non-cooperation movement.

  • Khilafat Committee was formed to force the British government to change its attitude towards Turkey.
  • Its members were the Ali brothers, Maulana Abul Kalam Azad, Ajmal Khan, and Hasrat Mohani.
  • It was made to boycott British goods.

Impact of the Khilafat Movement

The final blow came with the victory of Mustafa Kemal Pasha's army, which overthrew Ottoman rule to establish a progressive, secular republic in independent Turkey. He abolished the role of the Caliph and did not ask for any help from the Indians. The Khilafat leadership was divided across various political lines.

Role of Mahatma Gandhi in the Khilafat Movement

Gandhi saw the Khilafat movement as a chance to bring Hindus and Muslims together. The Khilafat Committee launched the movement in response to the harsh treaty imposed on the Ottoman Empire's spiritual leader in the Middle East.

Who were the leaders of the Khilafat Movement?

In India, Shaukat and Muhammad Ali, as well as Abul Kalam Azad, launched a campaign to defend the caliphate. The leaders joined forces with Mahatma Gandhi's non-cooperation movement for Indian independence in exchange for support for the Khilafat movement.

Summary:

Why was the Khilafat Movement Launched?

The Khilafat Movement (1919–1924) was a movement associated with Indian nationalism by Indian Muslims in the years following World War I. Its purpose was to pressure the British government to uphold the authority of the Ottoman Sultan as the Caliph of Islam.

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FAQs on Launch of Khilafat Movement

  • The Khilafat movement was launched because the Ottoman Empire was divided after the first world war, the Khalifa was removed from power, and Turkey was dismembered. As a result, the Indian Muslims launched a campaign to defend the caliphate. They aimed to pressure the British government to uphold the authority of the Ottoman Sultan as the Caliph of Islam.

  • The Ali brothers Muhammad Ali and Shaukat Ali started the Khilafat movement in 1919-1920. The movement was supported by Congress leaders like Mahatma Gandhi and Jawaharlal Nehru, and some of the important members included Maulana Abul Kalam Azad, Ajmal Khan, and Hasrat Mohani.

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