Why was the Khilafat Movement Launched?

By Mandeep Kumar|Updated : September 20th, 2022

The Khilafat Movement was launched to demand the control of the Turkish Sultan or Khalifa over the Muslim sacred places in the erstwhile Ottoman empire; to put Arabia, Syria, Iraq, and Palestine under the Muslim sovereignty; and the Khalifa must be left with sufficient territory to enable him to defend the Islamic faith.

What was Khilafat Movement?

Khilafat movement was a mass movement of Indian Muslims, led by Muhammad Ali and Shaukat Ali between 1919 and 1920. It was supported by the congress and Mahatma Gandhi sought to conjoin the Non-cooperation Movement.

  • Khilafat Committee was formed to force the British government to change its attitude towards Turkey.
  • Its members were the Ali brothers, Maulana Abul Kalam Azad, Ajmal Khan, and Hasrat Mohani.
  • It was made to boycott British goods.

Impact of the Khilafat Movement

The final blow came with the victory of Mustafa Kemal Pasha's army, who overthrew Ottoman rule to establish a progressive, secular republic in independent Turkey. He abolished the role of the Caliph and did not ask for any help from the Indians. The Khilafat leadership was divided into different political lines.

Role of Mahatma Gandhi in the Khilafat Movement

Gandhi saw the Khilafat movement as an opportunity to unite Hindus and Muslims. The movement was started by the Khilafat Committee to oppose the harsh treaty imposed on the spiritual leader of the Ottoman Empire in the Middle East.

Who were the leaders of the Khilafat Movement?

A campaign was launched in defense of the caliphate, led by Shaukat and Muhammad Ali, and Abul Kalam Azad in India. The leaders joined forces with Mahatma Gandhi's non-cooperation movement for Indian independence, promising non-violence in return for support for the Khilafat movement.


Why was the Khilafat Movement Launched?

The Khilafat Movement (1919–1924) was a movement allied to Indian nationalism by Indian Muslims in the years following World War I. Its purpose was to pressure the British government to uphold the authority of the Ottoman Sultan as the Caliph of Islam.

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  • The Khilafat movement was launched because after the first world war the Ottoman Empire was divided, the Khalifa was removed from power, and Turkey was dismembered.

  • The Ali brothers Muhammad Ali and Shaukat Ali started the Khilafat movement in 1919-1920.

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