What are the functions of subordinate courts?

By Ritesh|Updated : September 3rd, 2022

The functions of subordinate courts are to hear civil, criminal, and revenue cases under the respective courts. There are many subordinates or lower courts in each district of India.

Functions of Subordinate Courts

  • Civil lawsuits deal with disagreements between two or more parties over property, breaches of contracts or agreements, divorce, and landlord-tenant issues.
  • Civil courts resolve these conflicts.
  • Since a violation of the law is not a factor in civil actions, they do not impose any penalties.
  • Laws that are broken are the subject of criminal charges.
  • Theft, dacoity, rape, pickpocketing, physical assault, murder, etc., are all involved in these situations.
  • The police, acting on behalf of the state and the accused, file these cases in the lower court.
  • If proven guilty in such circumstances, the accused may receive a fine, jail sentence, or possibly the death penalty.
  • Land revenue on district-owned agricultural land is the subject of revenue cases.

Organization and Authority of Subordinate Courts:

  • The states establish the subordinate judiciary's organizational structure, legal authority, and nomenclature of the subordinate judiciary.
  • As a result, they vary slightly amongst states.
  • Under the supreme court, there are typically three tiers of civil and criminal courts.
  • The district judge is the most senior member of the judicial branch and has both original and appellate authority in civil and criminal cases.
  • So, the district judge also serves as the session judge.
  • He is referred to as a district judge when handling civil cases and a sessions judge when handling criminal cases.
  • Any sentence, including the death penalty and life in prison, may be imposed by the session's judge (death sentence).


What are the functions of subordinate courts?

The High Court is the supreme court in each state's legal system, and the subordinate judiciary comprises the courts below the High Court.

  • The several States in the nation have different subordinate courts with varying jurisdictions and nomenclatures.
  • The High Court is currently followed by three or more layers of civil and criminal tribunals.


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