Why did the Tsarist Autocracy Collapse in 1917?

By BYJU'S Exam Prep

Updated on: November 9th, 2023

Tsarist autocracy collapsed in 1917 due to increasing disappointments among the masses for Tsar’s policies. At that time the condition of the workers was pathetic. They were forced to work more than 15 hours a day. The situation of the farmers was also similar. They were landless and poor. Along with this, the First World War had a significant impact on the tsarist autocracy.

Tsarist Autocracy Collapse in 1917

The Tsar was forced to end his autocracy on 2nd March 1917. The Tsarist autocracy collapsed in 1917 because of the following reasons:

  • Condition of workers: The condition of workers was very pathetic under the Tsar’s rule. Most workers were unemployed, and employed people had to work all day (up to 15 hours a day). They were highly disappointed by their ruler when their demands for higher wages and a reduction in time were rejected.
  • Status of the farmers: The farmers were also poor. They were landless. They had to pay a hefty amount as land revenue, while some were forced to work as free laborers for the zamindars. Due to the poor conditions, the landless peasants demanded the land of the nobles, and others demanded a reduction in the land revenue. But, these demands were also rejected.
  • Effect of the First World War: Russia was beaten in the 1st World War due to the decisions taken by the Tsar without consulting the Duma. In addition, Russian troops suffered a massive casualty that aligned the locals with the Tsar.
  • Role of Philosophers: Philosophers like Karl Marx influenced the local people by giving the idea that the poor condition of peasants and workers was due to their exploitation by capitalists. According to him, the condition of workers and peasants can be changed only when society takes control of land and industries.
  • Role of Rasputin: Rasputin was a monk who made many policies. However, the local people were against those policies.

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