What are the Functions of Subordinate Courts?

By BYJU'S Exam Prep

Updated on: November 9th, 2023

The Functions of Subordinate Courts are to hear civil, criminal, and revenue cases under the respective courts. There are many subordinates or lower courts in each district of India. Civil, criminal, and revenue cases are heard by subordinate courts, respectively. Civil cases deal with disagreements between two or more parties over property, breaches of contracts or agreements, divorce, and landlord-tenant issues. These disputes are resolved by civil courts.

Functions of Subordinate Courts

Civil lawsuits deal with disagreements between two or more additional parties over property, violations of contracts or arrangements, divorce, and landlord-tenant issues. Civil courts resolve these conflicts. Since a violation of the law is not a factor in civil actions, they do not impose any penalties. Laws that are broken are the subject of criminal charges.

  • Theft, dacoity, rape, pickpocketing, physical assault, murder, etc., are all involved in these situations.
  • The police, acting on behalf of the state and the accused, file these cases in the lower court.
  • If proven guilty in such circumstances, the accused may receive a fine, jail sentence, or possibly the death penalty.
  • Land revenue on district-owned agricultural land is the subject of revenue cases.

Organization and Authority of Subordinate Courts

The organizational structure, judicial power, and nomenclature of the subordinate judiciary are determined by the states. They consequently differ slightly between states.

  • There are typically three tiers of civil and criminal courts under the supreme court.
  • In both civil and criminal cases, the district judge has both original and appellate authority, making him or her the most senior member of the judicial branch.
  • The session judge also serves as the district judge.
  • When presiding over criminal cases, he is referred to as a sessions judge, and when presiding over civil cases, as a district judge.
  • The session’s judge may impose any sentence, including the death penalty and life in prison (death sentence).


What are the Functions of Subordinate Courts?

The functions of Subordinate courts are to hear civil, revenue, and criminal cases under the respective courts. The courts below the High Court are referred to as the Subordinate courts. The nation’s various states each have their own subordinate courts with unique jurisdictions and nomenclatures. Currently, there are three or more levels of civil and criminal tribunals that come after the High Court.

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