What are the 7 Major Ecosystems?

By BYJU'S Exam Prep

Updated on: November 9th, 2023

The 7 Major Ecosystems are forest ecosystem, grassland ecosystem, tundra ecosystem, desert ecosystem, freshwater ecosystem, and marine ecosystem. Plants, animals, and microorganisms that coexist with abiotic environmental variables make up forest ecosystems.

Seven Major Ecosystems

Every living and nonliving object in a specific natural environment makes up an ecosystem. Significant elements of many ecosystems include plants, animals, insects, microorganisms, rocks, soil, water, and sunlight.

  • The two major types of ecosystems are terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems.
  • Marine ecosystems are water-based, whereas terrestrial ecosystems are land-based. Forests, grasslands, deserts, tundra, freshwater, and marine environments are the most common.
  • The term “biome” can also refer to terrestrial ecosystems covering a large area of land, such as Tundra.
  • However, keep in mind that specific ecosystem characteristics can vary greatly; for example, an oceanic ecosystem in the Caribbean Sea will have very different species than one in the Gulf of Alaska.

Facts about Major Ecosystems

Tropical, temperate, and boreal forest habitats are categorized based on the type of climate they experience. More diversified flora and animals can be found in tropical rainforest habitats than in any other ecosystem on Earth.

Warm, damp conditions promote the growth of towering trees and thick, dense foliage, with species ranging from the forest floor to the canopy. Temperate forest ecosystems can be deciduous, coniferous, or a mix of the two, with some trees losing their leaves each fall and others remaining evergreen all year.

  • Taiga, also known as boreal woods, are found in the far north, just south of the Arctic Circle, and are distinguished by an abundance of coniferous trees.
  • In grassland ecosystems, temperate savanna and other grasses and herbs predominate.
  • No trees in tundra ecosystems are found in frigid climates or areas with little rainfall.
  • The tundra-type Desert Ecology, which is present all over the planet, is the ecosystem in the Arctic or on mountain peaks. There is extremely little rainfall in these areas.
  • The freshwater ecosystem comprises wetlands, rivers, streams, lakes, and ponds.
  • Seas and oceans are included in the marine ecosystem.


What are the 7 Major Ecosystems?

The Seven major ecosystems are the grassland ecosystem, forest ecosystem, tundra ecosystem, desert ecosystem, freshwater ecosystem, and marine ecosystem. These are an integral part of maintaining the eco cycle.

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