What are the 5 Stages of Succession?

By BYJU'S Exam Prep

Updated on: November 9th, 2023

The 5 Stages of Succession are Nudation, Invasion, Competition and Co-action, Reaction, and Climax or Stabilization. At the same location, a succession of biotic communities naturally emerges one after another until the Climax stage is reached. In their early stages, biotic communities develop slowly. But as it progresses, the speed gradually picks up.

5 Stages of Ecological Succession

Ecological Succession is the process by which the mix of species and habitats changes over time in 5 stages. The stages of Ecological Succession are as follows:

  • Nudation: Nudation is the first stage of succession. It is the formation of a nude or a bare area. It might result from flooding, erosion, landslide, volcanic eruption, or other artificial or natural reasons.
  • Invasion: Invasion is the arrival of the propagules or the reproductive bodies of different organisms that can settle on the bare area.
  • Competition and Co-action: Competition and Co-action mean that the population of the invasive species increases in number within a limited space.
  • Reaction: Since the organisms grow in a place, the environment molds itself under the organism’s influence. It means that the area’s temperature, land, water, and soil change.
  • Stabilization or Climax: The Climax or Stabilized stage is the final or terminal stage of ecological succession. The terminal or final communities referred to as the climate community, reach this stage and become more stable and stay there for a longer time. For instance, grasslands, forests, and coral reefs.

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