Rigveda: Who wrote Rig Veda, 10 Mandals, and Summary

By Balaji

Updated on: February 17th, 2023

Rigveda or Rig Veda is a collection of Vedic Sanskrit hymns (sktas) from ancient India. It is one of the four revered Vedic books (ruti) that constitute the canonical Hindu religion. The earliest known Vedic Sanskrit text is the Rigveda. Since the second millennium BCE, Rigveda’s sounds and texts have been passed orally. The text’s layers include the Samhita, Brahmanas, Aranyakas, and Upanishads. The Rigveda is one of the rare texts with an uninterrupted history because its core is generally regarded to belong to the late Bronze Age. Typically, its composition dates to somewhere between c. 1500 and 1000 BCE.

Rig Veda is covered under the Art and Culture segment of the UPSC Syllabus and is an important topic to cover. The article here covers all the important aspects of the topic, such as its nature and importance, divisions- including the 10 mandals, important hymns and more.

Table of content

  • 1. Rigveda (more)
  • 2. Facts about Rigveda (more)
  • 3. Who Wrote Rigveda? (more)
  • 4. Rig Veda: Nature and Importance (more)
  • 5. 10 Mandals of Rigveda (more)
  • 6. Rigveda: Important Hymns (more)
  • 7. Rigveda UPSC (more)
  • 8. Rigveda UPSC Questions (more)


The Rigveda-Samhita, the entire text, is composed entirely of poems. The Mantras intended to praise the gods are referred to as ‘Rik.’ As a result, the Rigveda-Samhita is a collection of Riks (Samhita). Only the Shaakala cycle or school (Shakha) of the Rigveda is now available. About 10552 Mantras, divided into ten volumes called Mandalas, are found in the Rigveda Samhita. Anuvakas, several sections, make up each Mandala.

What Rigveda Deals With?

Each Anuvaka is composed of various hymns known as Suktas, and each Sukta is composed of various verses known as riks.

  • A Sukta consists of several Mantras.
  • A Sukta can have any number of Mantras. There are certain Suktas with a few mantras, while others with many.
  • It’s crucial to remember that each Sukta contains a Rishi (a seer), a Devata (a god), and a Chandas (a metre).
  • The Rigveda’s Samhita has 10552 Mantras, 10 Mandalas, 85 Anuvakas, and 1028 Suktas. Typically, Anuvaka is not stated when referencing a Rigvedic mantra.

Facts about Rigveda

Ten books referred to as Mandalas make up the Rigveda. 10,600 verses and 1,028 hymns make up this collection. One should remember the following important points about Rigveda.



Rigveda was written by

Ved Vyasa

Gods in Rigveda

33 devas

Rigveda was written in

between 1500 and 1200 BCE.

Chief Deity in Rigveda


  • 35% of the hymns and 25% of the Rigveda were written by the Angiras (a family of rishis).
  • Along with the ancient Aryan deities, the Rigveda also contained other significant primary deities. These included the sky God Varuna, the fire god Agni, and the sun god Surya.
  • The Rigveda attributes Lord Shiva, a Hindu deity, to the mountain and storm god Rudra.
  • According to the Rigveda, Lord Vishnu, one of the Trimurti of Hindu gods, was once a lesser deity.
  • The Rigveda also contains the eminently well-known Gayatri mantra.

Who Wrote Rigveda?

The Vedas were compiled by Vyasa, who is credited with organising the four types of mantras into four Samhitas.

One of Vedavyasa’s four disciples, Jaimini, Pila, Vaisampayana, and Sumantha, received the Rigveda from him. Nobody penned Vedas. It was only split in two. The Great Maharshis observed them there with their devoted Thapas.

Pila Maharshi spread the Rigveda. Indrapramithi and Bhashkala were taught the two Ruksamhithas he divided the Rigveda into. Again dividing his portion into four portions, Bhashkala delivered the pieces to Baudhya, Agnimadhara, Yaagnavalkya, and Parashara. A large number of disciples spread these Samhitas.

Rig Veda: Nature and Importance

The earliest collection of human knowledge is the Rigveda. The oldest sacred text in India is the Rigveda. Of the four Vedas, it is the oldest and largest. The nature of this Samhita is distinctive. It is a compilation of multiple works that can be read independently of one another rather than a single book.

Oldest Veda in India

The current form of this Samhita makes it very evident that the collection is made up of earlier and later components rather than one cohesive piece. This is demonstrated by a number of examples of language, style, and concepts.

  • This Samhita’s various hymns were written before they were formally organised. Despite being a composite of many phases, the Rigveda nonetheless bears some distinctive characteristics.
  • It is far more organic in form and character than other Samhitas.
  • The Rigveda is the source of all the characteristics of classical Sanskrit poetry. It contains the first indications of Indian philosophy and religion.
  • The Rigveda should therefore be studied by someone who wishes to comprehend Indian literature and spiritual culture because of both its poetry and its importance in religion and philosophy.
  • The importance of the Rigveda today is not limited to India because its carefully preserved language and mythology have aided in a better understanding of literatures, languages, and cultures from throughout the globe.

10 Mandals of Rigveda

This graphic reveals the split of 10 Mandals of Rigveda, the amount of Suktas in each Mandala, and the names of some of its Rishis.


Rigveda: Important Hymns

Some of the 1028 Suktas in the Rigveda Samhita are quite well-known and frequently cited by Vedic readers. Among them are:

  • Nasadiya Sukta
  • Purusha Sukta
  • Aksha Sukta
  • Dhana-anna-dana Sukta
  • Hiranya-garbha Sukta
  • Yama-yami-samvada Sukta
  • Duhsvapna-nashna Sukta

Additionally, Suktas are offered to various gods, including Indra, Maruta, Varuna, Usha, Surya, Bhumi, Soma, Agni, etc. So, in a nutshell, we may say that the Rigveda has a variety of issues that are explained in poetic, philosophical, or religious terms by Vedic seers.

Rigveda UPSC

Rigveda is an important topic of ancient history as well as Art & Culture part of the UPSC Syllabus. The topic holds great importance in the UPSC Prelims as direct questions can be asked. One should refer to Art & Culture Books for UPSC to prepare for this topic well.

Rigveda UPSC Questions

Question: Purusha sukta is a part of which among the following vedas?

  1. Sam Veda
  2. Rig Veda
  3. Atharva Veda
  4. Yajur Veda

Answer: Option B

Question: Which among the following is considered to be the oldest Veda?

  1. Sam Veda
  2. Yajur Veda
  3. Rig Veda
  4. Atharva Veda

Answer: Option C

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