Paris Agreement: Climate Agreement, COP21, Paris Agreement UPSC

By BYJU'S Exam Prep

Updated on: November 14th, 2023

Paris Agreement is also identified as COP 21, which is a summit held by the UNFCCC in 2015 in Paris, France. Therefore, based on the name of the host city, the agreement is termed the Paris Agreement. It revolves around the rapidly increasing temperature of the earth, and many initiatives started at this summit to curb the temperature rise in the world. The Paris Agreement is actually the 21st session of the summit held by the UNFCCC ever since its formation on March 21st, 1994.

In this article, we will delve into the key aspects of the Paris Agreement, and the implications it holds for the future of our planet. By examining the agreement’s provisions and exploring its impacts, we can gain a deeper understanding of the global response to climate change. Paris Agreement on Climate Change is also an important part of GS Syllabus in UPSC exam which should be covered comprehensively by the aspirants.


What is Paris Agreement?

The Paris Agreement, or COP 21, is a gathering held between November 30th, 2015, and December 12th, 2015. This is one of the most important agreements endorsed by the members of the UNFCCC, as it talks about the rapidly increasing temperature of the earth. Certain initiatives and programs were started at this summit to maintain the global temperature under control.

Paris Agreement UPSC Notes

The Paris agreement is also commonly known as the Paris Climate Accord, and it was the first occasion when nearly all the countries not only identified the alarming situation of global warming but also unanimously accepted the measures to tackle this situation. The treaty signed at this summit is legally binding on all 196 member nations, and it is their responsibility to embrace the conditions listed in the agreement.

Read: Difference between Kyoto Protocol and Paris Agreement

Aim of Paris Agreement(COP21)

The Paris agreement is a consensus that talks about various factors responsible for global warmings, such as carbon budget, emission of greenhouse gases, increasing global temperature, environmental pollution, deforestation, etc.

  • The summit also reveals the reasons and impacts of other environment-related problems such as pollution, rising sea levels, ozone depletion, water contamination, degraded air quality, etc.
  • The main agenda of the Paris agreement was to adopt measures to restrict the temperature of the planet to below 2 degrees Celsius by the end of the century and try to restrict it to below 1.5 degrees by the middle of the century.

Announcements of the Paris Agreement on Climate Change

Some of the most significant announcements in the field of environmental protection were made in the Paris climate agreement. The major outcomes of the conference are explained below.

  • To enforce the member countries to adopt checks and measures to limit the global temperature by 2 degrees Celsius by the end of the 21st century and also to push in some extra efforts to keep the temperature below 1.5 degrees Celsius by 2050 to reduce carbon dioxide emissions by 20% because carbon dioxide is the primary contributory greenhouse gas responsible for global warming.
  • Paris Agreement also focuses on increasing clean, pollution-free, and renewable energy production by 20%.
  • To reduce reliance on traditional energy production methods, aim for a 20% increase in energy efficiency.
  • Support and develop the infrastructure for the countries that are more vulnerable to climate change.
  • Assignment of responsibility to the developed nations to provide financial and technical aid to the developing nations.
  • The rich and developed countries have been asked to maintain annual funding of at least 100 billion dollars after 2020 to assist with environmental movements under Paris Agreement.

India’s Stand on Paris Agreement

India’s assertion in this conference was regarding the required growth for the survival of a population of about 1.25 billion, of which more than 300 million people are deficient in energy access.

  • Despite having very high energy requirements, India has chosen to reduce the intensity of greenhouse emissions per unit GDP by 33-35 per cent from 2005 levels.
  • India has committed to promoting the use of non-fossil fuels for at least 40% of installed capacity.
  • Proceeding along with Paris Agreement, India has pledged to achieve the production of at least 175 Giga Watts of renewable energy by the end of 2022.
  • India has targeted increasing the large-scale forestation process so as to achieve a evergreen forest cover that would be able to absorb at least 2.5 billion tons of carbon dioxide.

Challenges in Achieving Goals of the Paris Agreement

Though the Paris Agreement is full of significant declarations and advancements regarding climate change, it has not been able to produce the desired results due to the following reasons:

  • The lack of sanctions or any other strict action on a member state in the case of violating the declarations of the Paris Agreement.
  • Lack of financial stability weakens this campaign as huge funds are needed to implement the checks and measures and also to assist the underdeveloped members.
  • The ignorant behavior of some members keeps their personal interests as a top priority instead of agreement.

Paris Agreement UPSC

The Paris Agreement is a significant summit covered under the syllabus of Environment & Ecology section and Current Affairs of the UPSC syllabus. As a significant global agreement on climate change, understanding the Paris Agreement is crucial for aspirants aiming to tackle Environment and Ecology Questions in UPSC Mains and Prelims. Furthermore, knowledge about the agreement’s objectives and provisions equips aspirants with a comprehensive understanding of the current environmental challenges. To prepare for this topic comprehensively candidates can refer to notes, and best UPSC Study Materials.

Paris Agreement UPSC Questions

Question: Which of the following conferences or summits aims to control global climate change by keeping the overall temperature of the planet below 2 degrees celsius? a) Paris Agreement b) Montreal Protocol c) Earth Summit d) Kyoto Protocol

Answer: A. Paris Agreement

Question: Which year was the Paris Agreement adopted? a) 2012 b) 2013 c) 2014 d) 2015

Answer: d) 2015

Question: What is the primary goal of the Paris Agreement? a) To reduce poverty worldwide b) To promote global trade c) To combat climate change d) To establish world peace

Answer: c) To combat climate change

Question: Which country hosted the United Nations Climate Change Conference where the Paris Agreement was adopted? a) Germany b) France c) United States d) China

Answer: b) France

UPSC Notes
Uniform Civil Code Electrol Bond
Tiger Reserves in India Montreal Protocol
5G Technology Gaganyaan Mission
Sagarmala Project Tribunals
International Solar Alliance Asian Development Bank
World Bank Indian State of Forest Report
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