Tiger Reserves in India – Challenges, Important and Latest Tiger Reserves

By BYJU'S Exam Prep

Updated on: November 14th, 2023

Tiger Reserves in India not only serve as havens for the tigers but also play a vital role in conserving the delicate ecosystems they inhabit. In India, there are a total of 53 Tiger Reserves, with Ranipur Tiger Reserve being the 53rd Tiger Reserve in India as of 2023. The reserves were initially established in 1973-74 and are governed by Project Tiger, working under the administration of the National Tiger Conservation Authority.

Tiger Reserves in India were introduced to save tigers as they were supposed to come under an endangered species, according to the IUCN Red Data book. In this article, we delve into the fascinating world of Tiger Reserves in India, exploring their significance in safeguarding of the tigers. This topic is a part of environment and ecology sections of the IAS Syllabus and must be covered comprehensively by the aspirants.

What are Tiger Reserves in India?

Tiger Reserves in India consists of a core tiger habitat, which would be managed as an inviolate area. These habitats are designated under the Wild Life Protection Act 1972. The Tiger Reserves in India must be preserved for the conservation of Tigers without compromising the rights of local tribes and other forest inhabitants.

Tiger Reserves in India UPSC Notes

The National Tiger Conservation Authority is in charge of 53 Tiger Reserves in India. As per the reports, around 80% of tigers in the world are found in India and it becomes important for the government to protect these species. In 2006 there were a total of 1411 tigers and the numbers have increased to 2,226 in 2018.

Critical Facts about Tiger Reserves in India

  • As per the Tiger Census Report, 2019, the Tiger population has significantly increased from 2,226 in 2014 to around 2,967 in 2019.
  • Madhya Pradesh has the highest number of tigers at 526, followed by Karnataka (524) and Uttarakhand (442).
  • Jim Corbett National Park in Uttarakhand has the most Tigers in India, followed by Nagarhole and Bandipur in Karnataka, Bandhavgarh in (Madhya Pradesh) and Kaziranga in Assam.

Which is the new Tiger Reserve in India?

A new Tiger reserve in India, presumably the 4th in the area, covering an area of 1,440 sq km, has come up in the northern province of Madhya Pradesh. The forest was created by carving out the core areas of two protected areas – Guru Ghasidas National Park and Tamor Pingla Wildlife Sanctuary to create the largest contiguous protected area in Central India.

  • Tiger corridors are being saved and conserved under this mega project. It will be part of the famous Madhya Pradesh corridor which passes through the national park and the wildlife sanctuary and forms a vital part of the tiger dispersal route.
  • The state government of Madhya Pradesh has been working on creating this new national park since 2011.
  • Now that it’s finally completed, the decision has been met with much praise from wildlife conservationists and environmentalists who say it will help protect and preserve some of the world’s most endangered species, including tigers and leopards.
  • Tiger experts consider this new reserve a pioneering effort to save tigers from extinction.

History of Indian Tiger

Revered as a symbol of power, grace, and strength, the Indian tiger holds a prominent place in the country’s cultural, religious, and ecological heritage. Let’s take a look at some facts about the Indian Tigers below.

  • In the wild, Tigers are currently found in Myanmar, Cambodia, Laos, Thailand, Sumatra, Vietnam, Nepal, China, Russia, India, Bhutan, and Malaysia.
  • The Indian/Bengal tiger is found mainly in Bhutan, India, Nepal, and Bangladesh.
  • Habitat: Tigers are found in equatorial and sub-tropical woods, mangrove swamps, evergreen forests, and grasslands.
  • The tigers have been reported in temperate forests of the Himalayas as well.
  • IUCN status: Endangered
  • WPA Status: Tigers are listed under Schedule I of the Wildlife (Protection) Act
  • Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES): Appendix I.

Significance of Tiger Reserves in India

The new Tiger Reserves in India are a dream come true for conservationists. As a result, there has been an increase in the geographical area covered by the natural habitats of tigers.

  • The largest tiger reserve in India is Nagarjunsagar, commonly known as Srisailam, in Andhra Pradesh.
  • The Indian government has set up a new tiger reserve in Chhattisgarh to protect this national asset further and boost numbers.
  • After all, a tiger reserve is not only about tigers. It is about creating an ecosystem that supports flora and fauna.
  • This corridor will provide an assured prey base for predators like tigers, leopards, and panthers in the core area.
  • It will also facilitate the exchange of gene pools between different populations of wild cats and create territorial linkage between two isolated tiger populations in central India.
  • For years, the new reserve’s size and quality and the commitment to maintaining it as a protected area give hope that tigers will continue to share our forests.

List of Tiger Reserves in India [53 Tiger Reserves in 2023]

Tiger reserves serve as protected areas where tigers can roam freely, ensuring their survival and promoting biodiversity conservation. Let’s take a look at the Tiger Reserves present in the state of India.

Tiger Reserve State Total Area

(sq km

Corbett Uttarakhand 1288.31
Amanagarh buffer Uttar Pradesh 80.6
Valmiki Bihar 899.38
Pench Madhy Pradesh 1,179.63
Bandipur Karnataka 1456.3
Ranthambore Rajasthan 1,411.29
Panna Madhy Pradesh 1,598.10
Dampa Mizoram 988
Bhadra Karnataka 1,064.29
Pench – MH Maharashtra 741.22
Pakke Arunachal Pradesh 1,198.45
Simlipal Orissa 2,750.00
Bandhavgarh Madhy Pradesh 1,536.93
Indravati Chattisgarh 2,799.07
Nagarjunsagar Sagar Andhra Pradesh 3,296.31
Sunderban West Bengal 2,584.89
Kanha Madhya Pradesh 2,051.79
Manas Assam 2,837.10
Melghat Maharashtra 2,768.52
Palamau Jharkhand 1,129.93
Namdapha Arunachal Pradesh 2,052.82
Dudhwa Uttar Pradesh 2,201.77
Kalakad Mundanthurai Tamil Nadu 1,601.54
Periyar Kerala 925
Achanakmar Chattisgarh 914.02
Kali Karnataka 1,097.51
Sanjay Dhubri Madhya Pradesh 1,674.50
Mudumalai Tamil Nadu 688.59
Nameri Assam 464
Bor Maharashtra 816.27
Rajaji Uttarakhand 1075.17
Orang Assam 492.46
Nagarhole Karnataka 1,205.76
Parambikulam Kerala 643.66
Sahyadri Maharashtra 1,165.57
Sariska Rajasthan 1,213.34
Buxa West Bengal 757.9
Tadobha Andhari Maharashtra 1,727.59
Kamlang Arunachal Pradesh 783
Srivilliputhur Megamalai Tamil Nadu 1016.57
Ramgarh Vishdhari Tiger Reserve Rajasthan 1501.8921
Satpura Madhya Pradesh 2,133.31
Anamalai Tamil Nadu 1,479.87
Udanti Sitanadi Chattisgarh 1,842.54
Satkoshia Odisha 963.87
Kaziranga Assam 1,173.58
Biligiri Ranganatha Temple Karnataka 574.82
Kawal Telangana 2,015.44
Sathyamangalam Tamil Nadu 1,408.40
Mukundara Rajasthan 759.99
Nawegaon Nagzira Maharashtra 1,894.94
Amrabad Telangana 2,611.39
Pilibhit Uttar Pradesh 730.25
Ranipur Tiger Reserve Uttar Pradesh 529.3612

Tiger Reserves in India 2023 – Additional Schemes

Indian government has introduced many schemes aimed at protecting and revitalizing the tiger population and their habitats. Some of the most important government schemes related to tiger reserve are:

Project Tiger:

  • Project Tiger was launched on the 1st of April 1973 to promote the conservation of Tigers in India.
  • It is a 100% centrally sponsored scheme that provides funds to help the ‘tiger range States’ for in-situ conservation of tigers in the chosen tiger reserves.
  • The National Tiger Conservation Authority administers Project Tiger (NTCA)
  • The Project aims to promote an exclusive tiger agenda in the core areas of famous Tiger Reserves in India, with inclusive people participation.

Tiger Census:

Since 2006, the Indian government has been conducting Tiger Census every four years, led by the National Tiger Conservation Authority (NTCA) and the Wildlife Institute of India (WII), with cooperation from various state forest departments and conservation Non-Govermental Organizations.


  • Monitoring System for Tigers – Intensive Protection and Ecological Status, a software-based monitoring system, was launched across Indian tiger reserves in 2010.
  • Its objective is to strengthen patrolling and surveillance of the endangered Bengal tiger.
  • CITES, or The Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Flora and Fauna, has been approved by over 160 nations, making global trade in tiger body parts illegal.
  • India has been a signatory of this convention since the year 1975.

St. Petersburg Declaration on Tiger Conservation:

  • At the Petersburg Tiger Summit in 2010, leaders of 13 tiger range countries, including India, resolved to take all necessary measures to conserve Tigers globally and embarked on efforts to double their number in the wild.
  • The slogan for this initiative was decided as ‘TX2’. The Pilibhit Tiger Reserve and Sathyamangalam Tiger Reserve have won the TX2 award after their Tiger numbers doubled since 2010.

Challenges to Tiger Reserves in India

Poaching is still among the significant challenges to the conservation of Tigers. Every part of the tiger has great market value, thus promoting hunting by professional poachers, local hunters, trappers, pirates, and villagers.

  • Climate change and global warming increasing global temperatures have forced tigers and other species to shift their belts and migrate towards colder regions.
  • Natural disasters such as large-scale forest fires are a great threat.
  • Human encroachment of tiger habitats for livestock grazing, infrastructure expansion, and farming is a cause of concern.
  • Infrastructural development such as railways and roadways severely threaten Tiger habitats.

Tiger Reserves in India UPSC

In the UPSC exam, understanding the significance of Tiger Reserves is crucial as this topic comes under the environment and ecology section of the syllabus. Moreover, these reserves contribute significantly to the economy through tourism and provide livelihood opportunities for local communities. Questions related to the number of Tiger Reserves, their geographical distribution, conservation strategies, and challenges faced in tiger conservation have been asked in UPSC previous year question papers. To prepare this topic comprehensively candidates can refer to the environment & ecology UPSC Notes and books.

Tiger Reserves in India MCQs

Question: Which is the oldest tiger reserve in India? a) Jim Corbett National Park b) Bandipur National Park c) Sariska Tiger Reserve d) Periyar Tiger Reserve

Answer: a) Jim Corbett National Park

Question: Which of the following tiger reserves is located in Madhya Pradesh? a) Sunderbans National Park b) Kanha Tiger Reserve c) Manas National Park d) Nagarhole National Park

Answer: b) Kanha Tiger Reserve

Question: Which state has the highest number of tiger reserves in India? a) Karnataka b) Madhya Pradesh c) Uttarakhand d) Maharashtra

Answer: b) Madhya Pradesh

Question: Which of the following tiger reserves is located in the state of Assam? a) Periyar Tiger Reserve b) Bandipur National Park c) Sundarbans National Park d) Kaziranga National Park

Answer: d) Kaziranga National Park

UPSC Notes
Uniform Civil Code Electrol Bond
National Hydrogen Mission Asian Development Bank
World Bank Ashgabat Agreement
Tribunals Indian State of Forest Report
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