Kigali Agreement: Kigali Amendment India & Protocol

By BYJU'S Exam Prep

Updated on: November 14th, 2023

The Kigali Agreement, negotiated in the Rwanda capital in October 2016, enables the gradual phasedown of HFCs, which is a family of chemicals used extensively in the air conditioning, refrigeration, and foam and furnishing industries. Kigali Agreement is an important topic in Ecology and Environment which comes under the General Studies Paper 3 of the UPSC Exam. For aspirants who are preparing for Civil Services Examination, this topic is very important from both Prelims as well as Mains exam points of view.

Here we have provided comprehensive notes on the Kigali Agreement and also describe its features, important facts, significance, and Kigali Protocol benefits for India. Candidates preparing for UPSC Exam can refer to this article for the preparation of UPSC Notes on this particular topic.

What is the Kigali Agreement?

Kigali Agreement was held on the 28th meeting of the parties in Kigali, Rwanda to amend the Montreal Protocol to phase out hydrofluorocarbons(HFCs), which are the substances, that deplete the ozone layer.

  • The Montreal Protocol has undergone many amendments since it came into force in 1989. The eighth amendment of the Montreal Protocol is the Kigali Agreement.
  • Kigali Agreement occurs during the 28th meeting of parties to amend the 1987 Montreal Protocol. It is so named because the Montreal Protocol was amended in Kigali, the capital of Rwanda in 2016.
  • From 2019, the Kigali Agreement for hydrofluorocarbon reduction will be binding on the countries.
  • The 197 countries under the legally binding Kigali Amendment have agreed to reduce the use of hydrofluorocarbons by roughly 85% of their baseline by 2045.
  • According to a 2015 study by the Institute for Governance and Sustainable Development, the elimination of hydrofluorocarbons will help to reduce global warming by 0.5 degrees celsius by 2100.
  • Since hydrofluorocarbons do not have any impact on ozone depletion so to replace the CFCs and hydrochlorofluorocarbons(HCFCs), hydrofluorocarbons(HFCs) are used. Hydrofluorocarbons are one of the most powerful greenhouse gases.
  • The Kigali Agreement made the Montreal Protocol more powerful in fighting against greenhouse gases that can have an impact on Climate Change.

Features of Kigali Agreement

The Kigali Agreement plays an important role in addressing the vital question of hydrofluorocarbons. As hydrofluorocarbons are one of the most powerful greenhouse gases and to mitigate climate change countries must reduce their uses and production of hydrofluorocarbons. The important features of the Kigali Agreement are as follows-

  • To ensure its implementation there are non-compliance measures and the agreement between the signatories is legally binding.
  • Depending upon the states of development that are developed, underdeveloped, or developing; different socio-economic constraints, and varying Science and Technology capacities. The Kigali Agreement sets the different targets accordingly.
  • The principle of Common but Differentiated Responsibility is upheld by the Kigali Agreement.
  • Signatory parties of the Kigali Agreement are classified into three groups based on reduced production or use of hydrofluorocarbons.
  • The first group of developed countries such as the United States and the European Union countries must reduce their use of hydrofluorocarbons by 10% by 2019 as compared to 2011-2013 levels, and then 85% by 2036.
  • The second group of developing countries such as China and African nations, must reduce their use of hydrofluorocarbons by 10% by 2029 as compared to 2020- 22 levels, and then 80% by 2045.

Kigali Agreement and India

  • In fighting to phase out HFCs, which are harmful greenhouse gases that are known to accelerate Global Warming, India officially ratified the Kigali Amendment of the Montreal Protocol. India consumes only 3% of hydrofluorocarbons which is very less compared to the United States which consumes 37% and China, which consumes 25%.
  • According to the Kigali Agreement, India should start the phase-down process in 2028 and reduce hydrofluorocarbons emission by 10% by 2032 as compared to 2024-2026 levels.
  • There are financial implications of the Kigali Amendment in India as India is a developing economy.
  • More investment should be done in research and development of alternatives if the country wants to entirely give up hydrofluorocarbons.

Kigali Agreement Benefits for India

  • The Kigali Agreement would help to generate jobs and domestic manufacturing.
  • There is a need for the market to move toward cleaner gases from the harmful hydrofluorocarbons which seems possible after the passage of the Kigali Amendment.
  • Also helps in attaining the targets of SDG (sustainable development goals) 13, which seeks to combat climate change.
  • The Kigali Agreement helps India to fulfill its climate obligations under the Paris Agreement.
  • After ratifying the Kigali Agreement, India will prove that it is well prepared to compete for low GWP refrigerants, which are environment-friendly in the market.

Significance of Kigali Agreement

  • The Kigali Agreement played a crucial role in attaining the target of limiting the global rise in temperature by 2 degrees celsius over pre-industrial levels.
  • According to a recent assessment from the IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change), the earth’s average temperature has already increased by 1.1 degrees Celsius.
  • Since hydrofluorocarbons did not destroy the Ozone Layer they were not considered restricted or harmful substances by the Montreal Protocol in 1987 but hydrofluorocarbons were one of the harmful greenhouse gases that are why the Kyoto Protocol (1997) and the Paris Amendment (2015) the emissions of hydrofluorocarbons were targeted to reduce.
  • The Montreal Protocol is one of the most successful protocols which already phases out 98.6% of ozone-depleting chemicals.

Implications of the Kigali Agreement on India

There are significant technological and financial implications or repercussions on the Indian industries that use HFCs like the automobiles, refrigeration, and air conditioning industries. These implications of the Kigali Agreement are-

  • Technological Implications of the Kigali Agreement: Some industrialized countries have already begun to find alternatives to the HFCs, replaced some of them, and are very well versed in using them. If there is no transfer of such technology and research to the developing nations, it would be difficult for the domestic industries to compete with them on a global platform and in the domestic market too.
  • Financial Implications of the Kigali Agreement: Industries must either spend the money on research and development to figure out alternatives to HFCs or they have to buy the proprietary materials and technologies from the MNCs. The production cost will rise subsequently which may result in decreased demand in the market for their goods and products.

Kigali Agreement UPSC

Kigali Amendment UPSC topic or the Kigali Agreement is an important topic of Environment and Ecology. Here we provide comprehensive notes on the Kigali Agreement. To prepare this or other relevant topics related to the Ecology and Environment or current affairs. You can also download the NCERT Books for UPSC or other relevant UPSC Books. Here aspirants are also facilitated with UPSC Previous Year Question Paper and Other Study Materials.

Kigali Agreement Notes

Kigali Agreement UPSC Sample Questions

Question– Consider the following statement regarding the Kigali Agreement.

  1. The Kigali Agreement is an amendment to the Montreal Protocol.
  2. The main aim of the Kigali Agreement was to phase out the HFCs.

Choose the correct option from the given ones below-

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 Nor 2

Answer– C

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