India Bangladesh Relations – Indo Bangladesh Relations UPSC

By BYJU'S Exam Prep

Updated on: November 14th, 2023

India Bangladesh Relations is known as Indo-Bangladeshi relations or Bangladeshi-Indian Relations, connected by two-way relations between the citizens of India and Bangladesh. The bilateral relationship between India and Bangladesh has emerged as a crucial element in shaping regional dynamics and fostering cooperation in South Asia. The ties between these neighbouring nations hold immense significance, not only due to their historical and cultural affinities but also because of the shared geopolitical, economic, and security interests they possess.

The relationship between India and Bangladesh has witnessed significant strides in recent years, marked by increased diplomatic engagements, trade collaborations, and people-to-people interactions. In this article, we will be covering all about Indo-Bangladesh Relations that would be crucial from the UPSC exam perspective.

India-Bangladesh Relations

Even after many unresolved disputes, the India Bangladesh Relations are good socially, economically, and culturally. The relationship between India and Bangladesh is unified by common history, social heritage, cultural linguistics, and fondness for music, arts, and literature.

India-Bangladesh Relations UPSC Notes

Overview of Relations between India and Bangladesh:

  • In 1971, both India and Bangladesh were strong supporters of the Bangladesh Liberation War.
  • In the mid-1970s, the development of close connections between Bangladesh with Islamic nations affected the India Bangladesh Relations in a negative manner.
  • The participation of Bangladesh in the Organization of the Islamic Conference majorly focused on the Islamic identity irrespective of the country’s linguistics and cultural ties.
  • The India Bangladesh Relations faced many cold war alliances in the 1980s, which impacted back to previous bilateral relations.
  • Both nations created a strong pact with the commencement of Economic liberalization in South Asia.
  • The two nations, India and Bangladesh, are the largest trading partners and close joint ventures in anti-terrorism.

History of India-Bangladesh Relations

India and Bangladesh have attained a strong connection over the years since Bangladesh’s recognition as an independent state or country by India, along with Bhutan on 6th December 1971. India-Bangladesh relations have been established in many aspects, socially, culturally, economically, and civility, that holds the bond between the two countries. Despite these, India and Bangladesh shared a history of common heritage, ethnolinguistics, and desire for music, and also in the field of arts and literature, which unified both countries over the past years.

Latest updates on India and Bangladesh Relations

Some of the recent developments in India Bangladesh Relations are listed below which you need to know:-

  • In 2021, Indian And Bangladesh celebrated their 50th anniversary of diplomatic relations together along with the celebrations of the birth centenary of the Father of the Nation, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman.
  • The prime minister of Bangladesh, Sheikh Hasina, thanked Narendra Modi, Prime Minister of India, for supporting with two-million doses of Covisheild vaccines from Astra-Zeneca Oxford University.
  • It was decided to observe the 6th of December as Matri Diwas or Friendship Day for establishing bilateral India Bangladesh Relations in the year 1971.
  • In Ashuganj, Brahmanbaria, a foundation stone has been settled as a memorial to honour the Indian Martyrs who gave up their lives during the Liberation War.
  • A new link has been set up for the historic road between Mujibnagar and Nadia, declared by the two nations, and the link will be known as Shadhinota Shorok.
  • During the visit to Bangladesh in March 2021, the Prime Minister of India signed several treaties under the Mou’s for the welfare of both countries, and it has strengthened the India Bangladesh Relations.

India Bangladesh Summit 2020

In 2020, India and Bangladesh briefly discussed some issues of bilateral relations and expressed each other’s points of view on regional and international problems. The prime minister of India was invited to the 50th-anniversary celebration of Bangladesh’s independence and also the birth of diplomatic India and Bangladesh relations. The summit confessed about a few agreements and cooperations between India and Bangladesh which are given under.

  • The signing of bilateral documents and launching of projects.
  • Health sector collaboration.
  • Cooperation in Culture.
  • Cooperation in security and Management of borders.
  • Partnership in trade for progress.
  • Connection of welfare.

India and Bangladesh Relations- Agreements/MOUs Signed

During the virtual summit 2020, India and Bangladesh signed several agreements /MOUs for the upliftment of India-Bangladesh Relations. Here is the list of agreements/ MOUs signed between India and Bangladesh –

  • The Framework of Understanding Cooperation in the Hydrocarbon Sector
  • Matters related to the land boundary and the protocol for agreement of demarcation.
  • Memorandum of understanding for cooperation in sustainable energy.
  • Memorandum of understanding for cooperation in High Impact Community Development Projects (HICDP).
  • Protocol for conserving Elephants.
  • Memorandum of understanding for cooperation in agriculture in India.
  • Memorandum of understanding for cooperation and improvement in Wastage.

India-Bangladesh Relations – River Water Dispute

India and Bangladesh Relations have led to enormous profits in every way. However, one of the setbacks which are faced by both countries for a long time is the river water dispute sharing the Ganga river water. The diversion of the Ganges from Farakka Barrage to the Bhagirathi Hoogly River is the main conflict between the two countries that are settled by many attempts through two short-term agreements to end the dispute. It has affected the India Bangladesh Relations at times.

India Bangladesh Relations: Defence

The defence agreements between two neighbouring countries, India and Bangladesh first time have come into existence and were signed by the Prime Minister Of Bangladesh, Sheikh Hasina, during her visit to India in April 2017. Let’s take a look at the India Bangladesh Relations from the aspect of defence.

  • The defence agreement allows conducting combined training and exercise for the militaries of both countries. Similarly, the agreements depict help in manufacturing and inaugurating service centres for defence by India to Bangladesh, while both nations have the purpose of developing self-sufficiency in defence to provide high-quality training technically and logistically to the militaries.
  • The militaries of both nations have an important role in progressing and improving the general problems related to the defence training functions to handle natural disasters, issues related to concern terrorism, and so on. So overall, the India Bangladesh Relations from a defence aspect are strong.

India and Bangladesh Relations: Trade

There has been a modified trade strategy between two countries, India and Bangladesh, through which both nations can send goods to another third country by each other’s transportation routes which are approved by the Bangladesh cabinet. India also can import or export trade to Myanmar via Bangladesh land or water routes under the deal. It is an integrated strategy that can be amended after five years automatically if both nations agree with no objection to it.

India and Bangladesh Economic Relations

India and Bangladesh have the strongest bond over trading in South Asia, which succumbed to fast growth in trade over the last 10 years.

  • According to the reports of 2018-19, the trade of Bangladesh has tripled over the past years and has crossed $1bn.
  • For the fiscal year 2019-2020, India’s imports were $1.26 bn, and exports were $8.2 bn to Bangladesh.
  • For the cooperation of bilateral trade, many agreements were signed between the countries to improve the economy of both countries.

Ind0-Bangladesh Relations – Cooperation in Connectivity

Both countries are engaged in raising the connectivity among people for a better future. The cooperation of connectivity has come up with the idea of a railway link which will be useful in aspects like trade. India and Bangladesh also depend on connectivity for the evolution of trade in South Asia. Indo – Pacific strategy is a strategy which comprises the links between railways, shipping and air links and so on.

India-Bangladesh Relations – Emerging Disputes

India-Bangladesh’s Relationship is growing stronger even after having so many unresolved disputes. But, the emerging disputes between India and Bangladesh need to be resolved as soon as possible by both the governments of India and Bangladesh for their welfare of them. Some of the disputes between India and Bangladesh emerging rapidly are given below –

  • Teesta River water disputes
  • Illegal migrations
  • Dispute over china

India and Bangladesh Relations – Rohingya Issue

These are other major issues relating to the Rohingya of Bangladesh that are not accepted by Bangladesh itself. Around a total of 90 Rohingyas, among them, 21 were males, 8 girls, 4 boys, and 56 women had left for Malaysia, and after 4 days, the boat’s engine got a problem. These Rohingyas were found in the Andaman sea, seen by the Indian Coast Guard floating, exhausted, hungry and thirsty. It has caused concern for India Bangladesh Relations. At present, both the governments of India and Bangladesh have tried to solve the problem by attempting in many ways.

India Bangladesh Relations During Covid-19 Pandemic

In February 2021, Bangladesh collaborated with India’s Serum Institute extension of Covid-19 vaccinations, i.e.Covisheild vaccines. India gifted approx. 3.3 million doses to Bangladesh during the pandemic situation.

  • But, due to the worse conditions in India during the second wave of Covid-19, India discontinued exporting vaccines to Bangladesh, which affected the vaccination programmes.
  • India was declining the Covid-19 situation in April 2021, and then Bangladesh supported India by sending medical equipment and medicines. The cooperation and teamwork between these two countries have made the India Bangladesh Relations stronger.
  • There were approximately 10,000 vials of Remdesivir produced by Bangladesh by Beximco along with zinc calcium, anti-viral injections, oral anti-viral, PPE kits of around 30,000, and other tablets on the relief aid box, which was delivered to India.

India Bangladesh Relations UPSC

The India Bangladesh Relations is an important topic that finds its relevance under the India and Its Neighbourhood section of the UPSC PSIR Syllabus. This topic also has been mentioned in the Bilateral Groupings & Agreements. The bilateral relations between India and Bangladesh have witnessed significant developments, transforming the regional dynamics of South Asia.

Exploring this topic allows aspirants to comprehend the evolving nature of diplomatic, political, economic, and security aspects between the two nations. Aspirants must cover this topic thoroughly with the help of the best UPSC Books and be prepared for any type of questions from this topic.

India and Bangladesh Relations MCQs

Question: Which river forms a major part of the India-Bangladesh border? a) Brahmaputra b) Ganga c) Yamuna d) Teesta

Answer: b) Ganga

Question: Which of the following is an initiative between India and Bangladesh for energy cooperation? a) Indo-Bangladesh Energy Forum b) India-Bangladesh Power Grid Project c) Energy Cooperation Agreement d) Joint Renewable Energy Program

Answer: b) India-Bangladesh Power Grid Project

Question: Which Indian state shares the longest border with Bangladesh? a) West Bengal b) Assam c) Tripura d) Meghalaya

Answer: a) West Bengal

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