G20: List of Countries, India’s Presidency, G20 UPSC

By BYJU'S Exam Prep

Updated on: November 14th, 2023

G20, or the Group of 20, is a forum for the world’s 20 largest economies. It was established in 1999 in response to the Asian financial crisis. The G20 meets annually to discuss global economic and financial issues. India has used the G20 to promote its economic interests, such as securing market access for its goods and services. India’s presidency of the G20 in 2023 is an opportunity for India to play a leading role in shaping the global economic agenda.

G20 is a group of 20 major economies that meets annually to discuss global economic and financial issues. India is a member of the G20 and has been since 2006. G20 is that it is an important forum for cooperation and coordination among the world’s major economies. India believes that the G20 can play a key role in addressing global challenges such as climate change, terrorism, and poverty.

What is G20?

G20 is a testimony of the coming together of important geographies bound by common intents. In the realm of international relations, regional groupings act as underpinning factors that collectively reflect a shared vision, unity, shared prosperity, and multilateral friendship. An amalgamation of twenty countries took place in 1999 and gave birth to what we refer to as the G20.

  • The Asian financial crisis prompted the advent of the G20.
  • These countries represent the world’s largest economies that aim to coordinate and work together to formulate global policies on the issues of trade, health, climate change, economic crisis, and so on.
  • G20 grouping represents 80% of global economic output, accompanied by 75% of global exports and 60% of the world’s population.
  • It is noteworthy to mention that the G20 is not a permanent body and is accompanied by leadership that is transferred annually among the members.
  • The ‘G20 Troika’ depicts the current, previous, and upcoming presidencies of the G20 wherein three member countries would work in close association to give effect to the agenda.
  • The G20 Troika consists of Indonesia, Italy, and India. Spain has occupied the position of a permanent guest for the G20.

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G20 Countries

G20 (Group of Twenty) is an international forum consisting of 20 countries and the European Union. It brings together the world’s major economies to discuss global economic issues and promote international cooperation. G20 countries represent around 80% of the global GDP and two-thirds of the world’s population. The European Union and the nineteen countries constitute the G20 grouping. The G20 countries are as follows:

  • Brazil
  • Japan
  • Canada
  • Indonesia
  • Saudi Arabia
  • Argentina
  • The United States
  • The United Kingdom
  • Germany
  • South Africa
  • Australia
  • Russia
  • Mexico
  • India
  • South Korea
  • Italy
  • France
  • Turkey
  • China

History of G20

G20, or Group of Twenty, is an international forum comprising the world’s major economies. It was established in 1999 as a response to the global financial crisis, with the aim of promoting global economic stability and cooperation.

  • G20 was created in 1999, following the Asian financial crisis, to provide a platform for major economies to discuss and coordinate economic policies.
  • Initially, it consisted of finance ministers and central bank governors from 19 countries, along with the European Union. Over time, it expanded to include leaders from these countries as well.
  • The G20 represents two-thirds of the world’s population, 85% of global GDP, and over 75% of international trade.
  • Its membership includes major economies like the United States, China, Japan, Germany, and India, among others.
  • The G20 holds annual summits where leaders come together to discuss key economic and global issues, such as trade, finance, development, and climate change.
  • The forum focuses on fostering international cooperation, addressing economic imbalances, promoting financial stability, and addressing challenges faced by developing countries.

Agenda of G20

The major intention of the G20 is to provide joint efforts to ensure financial stability and economic growth and development, especially in developing and industrialized regions. This international forum engages major economies’ finance ministers and central bank governors.

The regional grouping of G20 primarily emphasized assessing the macroeconomic policies that influence the global economy. Joint efforts will be made to reduce harmful methane emissions and mitigate global warming.

  • The G20 leaders pledged to vaccinate 70% of the world’s population against the COVID-19 virus by the middle of 2022.
  • During the pandemic, the major economies of the G20 group decided to suspend the debt payments that were supposed to be made by the world’s poorest countries. This gesture of humanitarian essence offered billions of dollars of relief to developing nations.
  • At the 16th G20 meeting in Rome in 2021, an agreement was signed among 140 countries to examine the entire process of international corporate taxation.
  • The G20 summit that took place in 2018 in Argentina expanded the ambit of the G20 agenda and stressed fair and sustainable development.
  • At the 2016 G20 Summit in China, the focus was on the adoption of the Paris Agreement on Climate Change.

G20 Summit 2023: India

G20 Summit 2023 is a significant opportunity for the India to contribute to global discussions on pressing global issues. With the theme of “One Earth, One Family, One Future,” India aims to unite the world towards a common goal and a better future, emphasizing the importance of global cooperation.

  • India, as the host of the G20 Presidency, will organize nearly 200 meetings across 32 places in various locations throughout the country.
  • The G20 Theme, “One Earth, One Family, One Future” or “Vasudhaiva Kutumba-Kam” reflects India’s vision to create a world where there is unity and equality, transcending distinctions between first and third worlds.
  • India will actively work towards building international agreements and reforming multilateral organizations like the UN, contributing to a new world order for the post-Covid age.
  • The G20 Presidency provides an opportunity for India to assume the role of a leader representing the Global South and advocate for their interests.
  • Given the pressing issues of global warming, the COVID-19 pandemic, and conflicts like the one in Ukraine, the G20 has gained increasing importance as a platform for addressing these urgent challenges.

G20 India Presidency

India’s G20 Presidency represents a significant milestone in its journey towards a sustainable and inclusive future. With a focus on “One Earth-One Family-One Future,” India aims to promote global cooperation and environmentally responsible choices for a cleaner and greener world.

  • India’s G20 logo combines the lotus, India’s national flower, with the Earth, symbolizing harmony with nature and a pro-planet approach to life.
  • The logo’s colors reflect India’s national flag, representing the values of saffron, white, green, and blue.
  • The theme of the G20 Presidency emphasizes LiFE (Lifestyle for Environment), advocating for environmentally sustainable choices in individual lifestyles and national development.
  • The goal is to initiate globally transformative actions that contribute to a cleaner, greener, and bluer future.
  • The G20 Presidency coincides with the start of “Amrit Kaal,” a 25-year period from India’s 75th independence anniversary to its centenary, aiming for a futuristic, inclusive, and prosperous society.
  • The approach is centered around human well-being and development, focusing on a people-centric approach.

G20 Summit 2022

The G20 Summit 2022 was held on 15 November 2022. The G20 Summit 2022, also known as Bali Summit, was led by Indonesia and prioritized the following topics:

  • Global Health Architecture
  • Digital Transformation
  • Sustainable Energy Transition

G20 Summit 2021

Every year, the leaders of the G20 member countries indulge in important discussions on economic policies and matters of shared interests. This meeting of the partner countries is famous as the G20 Summit. Under the presidency of Italy, the G20 Summit 2021 theme was “People, Planet, Prosperity.”

It concluded with the adoption of the Rome Declaration. The Rome declaration assured support to the Global Partnership for Financial Inclusion in monitoring the National Remittances Plans.


G20 is an important topic for the UPSC exam. G20 is an informal forum for the governments of 20 major economies. It was established in 1999 to promote cooperation on global economic issues. India’s presidency of the G20 in 2023 is an opportunity for the country to make a real difference in the world.

There have been many developments in international affairs, and the emerging changes have significantly impacted India’s foreign policy. The G20 group is studied under the International Relations section of the GS Paper 2 Syllabus.

G20 UPSC Questions

With G20 being in the news, it is compulsory for aspirants preparing for the prelims as well as mains exam to prepare the topic exhaustively. Candidates should refer to the UPSC Prelims Question Papers after revising the topic well. Check the sample questions on G20 summit below.

Question: What is the theme of the G20 summit happening in India? (A) Shaping an Interconnected World, (B) Fighting poverty with Rigidity, (C) One Earth-One Family-One Future, and, (D) Making the world together

Answer:(C) One Earth-One Family-One Future

Question: Which country hosted the G20 Summit in 2023? (A) United States, (B) India, (C) Saudi Arabia, (D) China

Answer: (B) India

Question: What is the main objective of the G20 Summit? (A) Address global economic challenges and promote international financial stability, (B) Foster cooperation among the world’s 20 largest economies on climate change, (C) Enhance global security and counter-terrorism efforts, (D) Promote cultural exchanges and people-to-people diplomacy

Answer: (A) Address global economic challenges and promote international financial stability

Question for UPSC Mains: Discuss the significance of G20 Summit in addressing global economic challenges and fostering international cooperation

Question for UPSC Mains: Analyze India’s role and contributions in addressing global challenges during the G20 Summit

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