Foreign Invasion in India: Impact, List of Invaders of India in Chronological Order

By BYJU'S Exam Prep

Updated on: November 14th, 2023

Foreign Invasion in India has affected the Indian culture, society, and traditions of ancient India. India is abundant with natural resources, and it is one of the reasons it has attracted empires from various civilizations. There is a long list of Invaders of India who have invaded with the motive to capture the land of richness. The Foreign Invasions in India, like the Greek and Persian invasions, were the most significant in ancient Indian history.

In this article, we will be covering all about the Invaders of India. In addition, we will also discuss Foreign Invasion in India in Chronological Order and their impact on Indian society and culture. The Invaders of India is an important topic in the Ancient History section of the UPSC History Syllabus, and this article would help in the preparation of this section.

Foreign Invasion in India

India is the land of abundance and virtues, and it led to many foreign invasions. Foreign invaders of India tried to rob the country almost 200 times. Some foreign invasions in India lasted for years, while some lasted for a short time. The list of the most famous Foreign Invasions in India is as follows-

  • Persian Invasion
  • Greek Invasion in India
  • Mahmud of Ghazni
  • Invasion by Muhammad Ghori
  • Timur Invasion in India
  • Mughal Empire Invasion
  • British East India Company Invasion

Invaders of India resulted in a massacre and possession and loss of wealth. However, the foreign invasion of India has added cultural aspects to the country. Here we will discuss all the famous Foreign Invaders in India and how the invasions have affected India.

Foreign Invasion in India in Chronological Order

The two significant invaders of the Indian Subcontinent were the Persians and the Greeks. Apart from these two, India has been invaded by many rulers in the past, and here is the list of foreign invasions in India in chronological order.

Persian Invaders of India

The founder of the empire, Cyrus the Great, launched the first of his two major invasions in 535 BCE, annexing the areas west of the Indus River that comprised the Achaemenid Empire’s eastern frontier.

After the death of Cyrus, Darius the Great I invaded Sindh and Punjab. In the list of Persian Invaders of India, the son of Darius is also included, who was embroiled in a war with the Greeks.

Greek Invaders and Foreign Invasion in India

Alexander was one of the invaders of India in 327 BC. He divided his forces according to his plan, built a bridge over the Indus River, provisioned their men, and advanced to Taxila’s capital city.

  • Later, Alexander entered Punjab and participated in combat with that province’s king Porus.
  • According to experts, the Battle of the Hydaspes was the most expensive battle fought by Macedonians. Alexander eventually gave in after hearing his soldiers’ cries for help and was persuaded that it was best to go back.

Mahmud of Ghazni

Mahmud of Ghazni was one of the Invaders of India who strongly opposed the Hindu belief system. He led one of India’s most famous foreign invasions to gain wealth and spread Islam in india.

  • Mahmud of Ghazni destroyed the richest temple, such as Mathura and Somnath, 17 times, and he used that wealth to build the capital of Ghazni.
  • Ghazni was one of the famous foreign invaders in India. Mahmud of Ghazni attacked and Invaded India and then modern-day Pakistan in 1001AD.

Timur – One of the Famous Invaders of India

  • Timur was the first emperor of the Timurid dynasty, and he invaded the Delhi Sultanate. At that time, it was ruled by Sultan Nasir-Ud-Din Mahmud Shah.
  • Timur was one of the famous Invaders of India because he achieved great military success as a leader of the nomad warriors. Delhi was Timur’s biggest victory; he had strong control over central Asia, and this region blossomed under his reign.

Mughal Empire Invasion in India

Babur was also one of India’s Invaders and the Mughal Empire’s founder. His Panipat Battle played a crucial role in the change of the political history of India.

  • His victory ensured the Mughal Empire’s beginning and the Delhi Sultanate’s end.
  • Mughal Empire ruled Indian Subcontinent till the time of the arrival of the East India Company, which was the beginning of British Colonization.

British East India Company Invasion

Britishers were also Invaders of India, and their era is known as British India. They came to India on August 24, 1608, as merchants to lead the foreign invasion of India.

  • However, the expansion of the Britishers started with the victory of the Battle of Palsset in 1757. The British Company was in charge of almost all sectors, including administrative and military power.
  • In 1857, British Crown took all control of India and started the British Raj. The Crown Rule in India lasted till 1947.

Foreign Invasions in India and their Impact

The foreign invasions in India had various impacts on India. Below we have listed some of the important effects of foreign Invaders on India.

  • The expansion of Indo-Iranian trade was spurred by the Persian invasion.
  • Some of Asoka’s edicts were written in the Iranian writing style known as the Kharosthi script, which rose to popularity in northwest India.
  • India received a new writing system from the Persian scribes. It is referred to as karoshi.
  • Invaders of India also brought some positive changes; for example, concepts like liberty, equality, freedom, and human rights were introduced. Numerous legal measures were introduced to improve the condition of women in society.
  • The foreign invasions in India presented the country with various art forms. For example, carpentry was the most prosperous craft during the Greek invasion.
  • The influence of Foreign Invasions in India can also be seen in Indian sculpture development. Many painting schools were established during this period.
UPSC Notes
Architecture of Delhi Sultanate Difference Between Classical and Folk Dance
Mughal Architecture Famous Paintings in India
Redressal of Grievances in India Pre-historic Rock Paintings
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