Study Notes On Methods Of Research For UGC NET Exam

By Mohit Choudhary|Updated : August 3rd, 2022


1. Classification of Research on Basis of Logic


a. Deductive approach: In the deduction approach, we start from theory and try to prove it right with the help of available information. It is additionally also named as top-down or general to a specific methodology.

It involves three steps:

  • State the hypothesis.
  • Collect information to check the hypothesis.
  • Make the choice to acknowledge or dismiss the theory.

b. Inductive approach: This approach also involves the following three steps:

  • Observe the different phenomena in the worlds.
  • Make a search for a pattern.
  • Make a generalization about what is occurring.

It is also termed as a bottom-up approach or specific to the general approach.

2. Classification of Research on the Basis of Process



a. Quantitative Research:  Estimation of the amount is trailed by quantitative research. It is relevant to phenomena that can be stated in terms of quantity. It involves collecting and converting data into numerical form. We can do statistical calculations and draw conclusions. It is similar to a deductive approach.

b. Qualitative Research: It is worried about subjective marvel, i.e, wonders identifying with or including quality or kind. For instance, where we are keen on exploring the explanations behind human conduct, we very discuss 'Inspiration Research', a significant sort of qualitative research. It is basically inductive in nature and has a very different structure. The researcher starts with a tentative idea or question and these questions become more specific with progress in research.

3. Classification of Research based on Objectives


a. Descriptive Research: It is a quantitative research method. In basic words, descriptive research is tied in describing the phenomenon, watching and making inferences from it. The reality of discovering request and the field studies are the primary substance of descriptive research. The fundamental attributes of this strategy are that the specialist has no power over the factors; he can just report what has occurred or what's going on.


Types of descriptive research: 

(i) Survey studies: Survey research is that branch of social scientific investigation that studies large and small populations by selecting and studying sample chosen from the populations to discover the relevant incidence.

(ii) Ex-Post Facto Research: In this kind of research, the independent variable or variables have already occurred in which the researcher starts with observation of a dependent variable or variables.

(iii) Historical Research: It is similar to ex-post facto research. It normally focuses on the historical part of an issue of interest or problem. 

(iv) Analytical Research: In this research method, the researcher uses facts or information already available. It endeavours to make a basic assessment of the material.

b. Correlational Research: The purpose of this research is to explore whether there is any relationship of interdependence between two variables or characteristics, and to ascertain the degree of such relationships. The value of correlational research is to discover relationships among phenomena with a view to predicting and in some situations, controlling their occurrence.

c. Explanatory Research: it attempts to answer how and why between two aspects of a situation or a phenomenon. For example, why examination related stress leads to rote learning?Why and how stress leads to heart disease?

d. Exploratory Research: It is generally done at the beginning of the research. It is attempted to investigate a territory where little is known or to examine the potential outcomes of undertaking a specific research study and is much the same as plausibility study or pilot study. It endeavours to explain why and how there is a connection between at least two parts of a circumstance.

e. Experimental Research: An experimental Research has three characteristics as follows:

  • All autonomous variable is controlled.
  • All the other variables except (independent variables) are held steady.
  • The effect of manipulation of the independent variable on the dependent variable is observed.

It begins with a question concerning the relationship between two or more variable. Simultaneously, the researcher develops one or more hypotheses to state the nature of the expected relationship. The experiment is the event planned and carried out by the researcher tries to get evidence.

4. Classification of Research on Basis of Application


a. Fundamental (Basic or Pure) Research: A Research, which endeavours constant and patient endeavours to find something new to enhance the human information in a principal design is known as essential research. This type of research helps in creating theories by finding broad generalisation and principles. It is sorted out through various procedures of research like sampling, hypothesis facts, etc.

Fundamental research can take shape in two different ways:

  • Discovery of a new theory.
  • Development of the existing theory.

b. Applied Research: Fundamental Research sets principles and applied research utilize those principles to know the problems with the best possible manner.

  • This type of research is based on the application of known theories and models to the actual operational fields of populations.
  • Applied research is done to solve explicit, useful inquiries confronting the general public.
  • It can be utilized for approach detailing, organization and comprehension of a wonder.

5. Classification of Reseach on the basis of Concept

a. Conceptual Research: It is commonly utilized by philosophers and scholars to grow new concepts or to reinterpret the current concepts. It is identified with some unique thought or hypothesis.

b. Empirical Research: It depends on experience or observation alone, which is without due regards for system and theory. It is data-based research that comes up with conclusions that are capable of being verified by observation or experiment.

c. Action Research:

Activity Research: The term 'activity examine' was began during the 1940s by Kurt Lewin, a German-American social therapist who is broadly viewed as the originator of 'Activity Research'. Activity Research signifies 'learning by doing'. It alludes to a wide assortment of evaluative, explores and systematic research techniques intended to analyze issues or shortcomings, and help specialists to create feasible answers to address.

Features of Action Research:

  1. Situational and problem-solving perspective.
  2. Intervention in the real world.
  3. adoption of alternative practices.
  4. immediate problematic situation.
  5. goals of social science.
  6. collaborative and participatory.
  7. co-learning

Action research process:


  • Planning: The first thing to do is to analyze the problem scientifically in the specific perspective in which the problem has emerged.
  • Action: after the planning stage in which all the procedures of investigation have been determined, comes the action stage. The researcher has to administer tools to collect data and information. Systematic analysis has to be done. Results have to be recorded.
  • Observation: observation has to be objectively done without any presuppositions. The detailed observations, monitoring and recording enable you to report your findings to others.
  • Reflection: once the results have been obtained and analysed and conclusions are drawn, you are ready to initiate changes in your teaching strategy. it is also aimed at adopting a new method.

Question Time

Q. 1. Which of the sets of activities best indicate the cyclic nature of action research strategy?

(1) Reflect, Observe, Plan, Act

(2) Observe, Act, Reflect, Plan

(3) Act, Plan, Observe, Reflect

(4) Plan, Act, Observe, Reflect

Ans: D

Solution: Plan, Act, Observe and Reflect is the set of activity that best indicates the cyclic nature of action research strategy. The action research strategy is a strategy to solve an immediate problem through various steps. 

Plan to Act to Observe to Reflect

Q. 2. A researcher attempts to evaluate the effect of method of feeding on anxiety – proneness children. Which method of research would be appropriate for this?

(1) Experimental method

(2) Ex-post-facto method

(3) Survey method

(4) Case study method

Ans: B.

Solution: Because this research is conducting after the incidence. Ex-Post facto research, the independent variable or variables have already occurred in which the researcher starts with observation of a dependent variable or variables.

Thank You.

Team BYJU'S Exam Prep.

Score Better.


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