Science Study Notes on Nature and Structure of Science

By BYJU'S Exam Prep

Updated on: September 25th, 2023

In this article, we are discussing the topic of Nature and the Structure of Science. Questions on this topic are generally asked in the REETUPTETCTET and other teaching examinations. If you go through the previous year’s question papers, you will find that every year a good number of questions are asked on this topic.

Definition of science:

According to BF Skinner, science is first of all a set of attitudes it is a disposition to deal with facts rather than with what someone has said about them.

According to Kothari Commission, science is universal and so can its benefits its material benefits are immense and far-reaching industrialization of agriculture and release of nuclear energy.

According to Einstein, science is an attempt to make the chaotic diversity of our sense experience corresponded to logically uniform systems of thought.

Nature of science:

  • It provides the essential background of knowledge for cultural development.
  • Science is ongoing. It is continually refining and expanding our horizons of knowledge of the universe.
  • It helps in developing and posturing the scientific attitude, scientific interests, and scientific Outlook among children by providing solutions for day-to-day problems.
  • It helps in training the children for developing a scientific temper and scientific creativity.
  • It stresses the values of open-mindedness, intellectual, honesty, creative, thinking and dedication.
  • It helps in building self-confidence and a systematic approach to day-to-day problems.
  • It is both a product and a process. In its process form, it suggests ways and means of exploring the truth and in its product form; it presents a systematic and organized body of knowledge. The process form of physical science is more important than its product form. It always remains in search of facts and truth.
  • It adopts the scientific method which is known as reliable, valid, objective, unbiased and verifiable.

Therefore, science is an overall product of human activity in the form of a systematic and organized body of knowledge. It is the product of all facts connected with our information, concepts, generalizations, laws, and theories framed on the basis of the vast fund of accumulated knowledge.

Thus, science is the discipline concerned with the study of properties of matter and energy and also with the study of the composition of various substances and their effects upon one another. It helps in explaining the natural phenomenon on the basis of established laws of nature physical science help children in developing scientific temper and other scientific virtues and values.

The scope of science teaching in schools:

The scope of science teaching in schools is as follows:

  • To make students creative
  • to make them open-minded
  • to make aware of those aspects of science that are environmentally based and a life centred
  • to train students in the maintenance and use of science equipment or apparatus
  • to emphasize the scientific method which has helped in solving problems
  • to develop the power of thinking, reasoning, curiosity and scientific attitude.
  • To prepare children for a change of life 

At the primary stage, the focus should be on the child’s environment i.e. social, physical and biological.

At the secondary level, the emphasis must shift to the acquisition of knowledge so science should now be taught as physics, chemistry, and biology.

General Principle in the Teaching of Science:

  • constructivist principles
  • Discovery principles
  • brain-based principles
  • collaborative principles
  • multiple intelligences and learning styles.
  • Connecting to Students’ Interests and Experiences
  • To develop an understanding of scientific explanations of the world, students need sustained opportunities to work with and develop the underlying ideas and to appreciate those ideas’ interconnections over a period of years rather than weeks or months.
  • Focusing on Core Ideas and Practices i.e. deep exploration of important concepts, developing meaningful understanding, and actually practising science.   
  • it is also a set of practices used to establish, extend, and refine that knowledge.
  • all students are provided with equitable opportunities to learn science and become engaged in science.

Need for Science Education in Schools:

We are surrounded by technology and the products of science every day. Public policy decisions that affect every aspect of our lives are based and scientific evidence. As children grow up in an increasingly, technologically and scientifically advanced world, they need to be scientifically literate to succeed.

School education in daily life, especially at the school stage, is necessary for several reasons.

  1. The rapid growth of science and technology is influencing almost all walks of life. It is resulting in the production of new materials.
  2. Significant portions of the students terminate their studies after primary education and therefore there is an imperative need to provide them education on a continuing basis about the ongoing developments in the areas of science and technology having direct relevance to life.
  3. In the views of the nature of science, the scientific laws and principles being the generalization of common experiences, the need for relating science with the life of a community. 

The teaching of Science wants to integrate Students:

  • Critical problem solver
  • a responsible steward of nature, environmentalist
  • informed decision-maker
  • effective communicator
  • Scientifically, Technologically and environmentally literate and protective member of society
  • equipped with a repertoire of competencies important in the world of work and in a knowledge-based society
  • Innovative and creative

Now, science is playing a utilitarian role to improve the standards of our life. Science has become a more useful and helping instrument in guiding our daily living and living styles. So it is very useful in teaching.


Science Study Notes on Nature and Structure of Science

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