Medieval History Notes: All about Mughal Empire Part-I

By BYJU'S Exam Prep

Updated on: September 25th, 2023

Social Studies is an important section for CTET, MPTET, State TET, and other teaching exams as well. Social studies are the main subject in the CTET exam Paper II. In CTET Exam, the Social Studies section comprises a total of 60 questions with 60 marks, of which 40 questions come from the content section i.e.History, Geography and Political Science and the rest 20 questions from the Social Studies Pedagogy section.

Table of content


The Mughal Empire

  • The Mughals were originally Turks. They belonged to the Chagatai branch of the Turkish race.
  • The period of the Mughal empire is known as Second Classical Age. First Classical Age is the period of Guptas.
  • Mughal Empire is also known as Timurid Empire because of its relation to Amir Timur.
  • Mughal Emperors are 20 in number. They ruled India from 1526 to 1857.
  • Only six are considered great They are:
  1. Zahiruddin Muhammed Babur (1526 – 1530)
  2. Naziruddin Mirza Muhammed Humayun (1530 – 40 & 1555 – 1556)
  3. Jalaluddin Muhammed Akbar – (1556 – 1605)
  4. Nuruddin Muhammed Jahangir (1605 – 1627)
  5. Shahabuddin Muhammed Shah Jahan (1628 – 1658)
  6. Muhiyuddin Muhammed Aurangazeb Alamgir (1658 – 1707)

Babur (1526-1530) Facts:

  • Babur, the founder of the Mughal Empire, was the fifth descendant of Timur on the Father’s side and the fourteenth descendant of Chengizkhan on the mother’s side.
  • Babur was born in Farghana in Turkey on 14 Feb. 1483 as the son of Umer Sheik Mirza and Qulik Nigarkhanum.
  • Babur’s father Umershiek Mirza was the grandson of Amir Timur and the ruler of Farghana.
  • Babur became the ruler of Samarkhand at the Age of 11.
  • He captured Kabul in 1504. Then Babur attacked India 5 times for want of wealth.
  • Babur’s first Attack on India was in 1519. Bhera was the first place captured by Babur.
  • In 1524 Daulatkhan, Ibrahim Lodhi’s brother invited Babur to India.
  • On 21 April 1526 Babur defeated Ibrahim Lodhi, the last Lodhi Sulthan in the First Battle of Panipat.
  • On 16 March 1527, he defeated Rana Sangha of Mewar, in the Battle of Khanwa.
  • The Rajputs in 1528 under Medini Raj of Malwa fought against Babur in the Battle of Chanderi but were defeated.
  • In 1529 the Afghans under Muhammed Lodhi fought against Babur in the Battle of Ghaghra but were defeated.
  •  In 1530 December 26, Babur died and was cremated in Kabul.
  • Babur was the first to use Artillery in India.
  • His memoirs or autobiography ‘Tuzuk-i-Baburi or Baburnamah were written in the Turkish language, Babur’s mother tongu. Babur said I don’t like India and Indians.
  • Babur was the first Mughal ruler to keep in hand the Kohinoor Diamond.
  • Babur was a contemporary of Krishnadeva Raya of the Vijaya Nagara Empire.


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Medieval History Notes: All about Mughal Empire Part-I

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