Modern History of Rajasthan, Study Notes, Material – REET Paper 2

By BYJU'S Exam Prep

Updated on: September 25th, 2023

In this article, we should read related to the Modern History of Rajasthan, Revolt of Rajasthan 1857 Important for the REET Paper-2. General Knowledge of Rajasthan is very important for Rajasthan Eligibility Examination for Teachers. 

Modern History of Rajasthan:(1707-1964)

Princely State:

  • There were many small princely states in Rajasthan from 1707 to 1947.
  • Some important states were Jat ruler of Bharatpur, Kachhwaha ruler of Jaipur, Kachhwaha ruler of Alwar, Shekhawati Ruler, Mewar, Kota, Bundi, etc.
  • Churaman of Bharatpur built Fort of Thun.
  • In 1725, Badan Singh, brother of Churaman built Jal Mahal of Deeg, Kumher, and Vair fort.
  • Maharaja Jawahar Singh Constructed The Lahore Fort.
  • The Matsya Union was the first state to be formed with the unification of Alwar, Bharatpur, Dholpur, and Karauli. Later they joined the Indian Union.
  • Mirza Raja Sawai Singh holds the title of Sawai, Saramadi Raja-e-Hind, Raj Rajeshwar, and Shri Rajadhiraja. He Built Jantar Mantar in Delhi, Mathura, Ujjain, Varanasi, and Jaipur. In 1727, He laid the foundation of Jaipur which was designed by Vidyadhar Bhattacharya.

Revolt of Rajasthan 1857

  • During the 1857 revolt, George Lawrence was the Agent to Governor-General (AGG).
  • On 28 May, Naseerabad was the first place where the revolt began.
  • Kushal Singh Champavat led the revolt in Tripura.
  • There were six cantonments in Rajasthan Naseerabad, Devali, Erinpura, Kota, Kherwara, and Beawar.
  • On 21st August, revolt reached to Jodhpur region.
  • Kota revolt was headed by Mehrab Khan and Jadaya Kayashion. They killed Major Barton, his two sons, and a doctor on 15th October 1857 for which they were hanged on 3rd March 1858.

Reason for the failure of revolt in Rajasthan: Lack of unity and organization, no support from rulers, no definite leadership, no ammunition support, etc.,

  • Maharaja Jaswant Singh I was the ruler of Bharatpur during the revolt.
  • Maharaja Ram Singh II was the ruler of Jaipur during the revolt.
  • Maharaja Thakat Singh was the ruler of Jodhpur during the revolt.
  • Maharao Ram Singh was the ruler of Kota during the revolt.
  • Maharao Swaroop Singh was the ruler of Udaipur during the revolt.

Some famous freedom fighters of this revolt:

  • Lala Jaydayal from Kota
  • Mehrab Singh from Kota
  • Thakur Kushal Singh from Jodhpur
  • Suryamal Misson from Bundi Darbar as a poet.
  • Rawat Keshri Singh from Mewar
  • Rawat Jodhsingh from Mewar
  • Tarchan Patel from Tonk

Peasant & Tribal Movement:

Peasant & Tribal movement reason: Signing of treaties of Rajas with Britishers for getting relieved from Maratha and Pindari attack. This levied the extra tax on Rajas which they collect from the Peasants. Hence Peasants were facing double exploitation now.

Some Famous Peasant Movement were:

Bijoliya Movement (1897-1941) : 

  • This movement began under the leadership of Sadhu Sitaram.
  • In 1916, leadership was taken by Vijaysingh Pathik.

Begun Peasant Movement (Chittodgadh, 1921)

  • It was started against Lag-Baag (Cesses) and Begar (Forced Labour) system.
  • Headed by Ramnarayan Chaudhary. Later by Vijaysingh Pathik.

Alwar Peasant Movement : 

  • Two peasant movements took place in Alwar.
  • The movement against Pig farming (1921): This movement was started against the tight law on killing pigs that were damaging peasant’s crops.

Neemuchana Peasant Movement (1923-24): 

  • It was considered more dreadful than the Jallianwala Bagh massacre by Gandhiji. It was started to oppose the increased tax by the king. Almost 800 farmers gathered for a meeting in which Britishers started the open fire on Peasants in which hundreds were killed.

Shekhawati Peasant Movement (1925)

  • Ended in 1946 through the medium of Hiralal Shashtri.

Bundi Peasant Movement (1926)

  • It is also called the Barad peasant movement.
  • Headed and started by Nainuram Sharma.

Mev Peasant Movement (1931)

  • It took place in the region of Alwar and Bharatpur which is also called the Mewat region.
  • Headed by Mohammad Ali.

Some famous Tribal movements are:

  • Govindgiri Movement (1883)
  • Started in the Baswada and Dungarpur region of the Bhil tribe.
  • In 1883, Samp Sabha was established for creating political awareness among the Bhil tribe.
  • On 7th December, they gathered at Hills of Maangarh and police open fire on them in which 1500 tribal were killed.
  • Every year a fair is organized on the day of Ashwin Shukla Purnima.

Eki Movement (1921-23):

  • Headed by Motilal Tejawat.
  • Reasons for the movement were interference of Britishers in their customs, extra taxes on salt, tobacco, etc.

Meena Movement (1930):

  • The main reason was the Criminal tribal act of (1924) and Jarayam Pesha Kanun (1930) by the British govt. in which the Meena tribe was declared as the criminal tribe.
  • In 1952, Jarayam Pesha Kanun was abolished.

Terms Related to Land Revenue System in Rajasthan:

  • The land under the direct management of the state was called Khalsa.
  • The land under the feudal or granted land was called Jagir.

Land rights in the Khalsa system

  • Biswadar:  This was hereditary and enjoyed undistributed possession on land as they continue to pay tax.
  • Ryotwari System:  Under this system, every registered holder is considered as the proprietor of the land and pays directly to the govt.
  • Ijara System:  Under this system right of collecting revenue from a particular Pargana was given to the highest bidder of the auction.

Land rights in the Jagir system:

  • Jagir:  It is land granted to a feudal in which the state had no right to intervene.
  • Inam or Tankha:  It is a revenue-free grant to a person given as a salary or for its good works.
  • There were many cesses also levied on farmers. They were production, cattle breeding, irrigation, nature, social cesses, etc.

Famous Freedom Fighter of Rajasthan:

Motilal Tejawat:

  • Started Eki movement
  • He is called Messiah of Tribals.

Swami Kumaranand:

  • Gave shelter to Batukeshwar Dutt after the Kankori conspiracy.
  • Contributed by uniting farmers.

Balwant Singh Mehta:

  • Founder of Vanvasi hostel.

Laduram Joshi:

  • Participated in the Salt movement and August revolution.

Devishankar Tiwari:

  • Contributed to the establishment of Rajasthan University, Sawai Raja Mansingh medical college and Maharani College.

Vijay Singh Pathik:

  • Real name was Bhoop Singh Gurjar.
  • Leaded Bijoliya Peasant Movement.
  • Rajasthan Sandesh and Nav Sandesh were started by him.
  • He wrote a novel Ajay Meru.
  • Some other freedom fighters were Jugalkishor Chaturvedi, Balmukund Bissa, Mohanlal Sukhadiya, Haridev Joshi, Arjunlal Sethi, Ramnarayan Chaudhary, Damodar Ras Rathi, etc.

Facts After Independence: 

  • The First Governor of Rajasthan was Mr Gurumukh Nihal Singh.
  • The first assembly President of Rajasthan was Mr Narrottamlal Joshi.
  • The First CM of Rajasthan was Hiralal Shashtri.
  • The First Chief Justice of Rajasthan High Court was Mr Kamal Kant Verma.
  • First Lady CM of Rajasthan is Smt. Vasundhara Raje.
  • First lady Minister was Smt. Kamla Beniwal.
  • First Lady Governor was Smt. Pratibha Patil.

This article tends to be beneficial for the following exams – REET, UPTET, CTET, Super TET, DSSSB, KVS. etc.

You may read the following books:

Serial No. Book Name Author Name
1. Reet (Rtet) Level-2 (Maths and Science Stream) Practice Sets Book for 2021 Agrawal ExamCart
2. REET (RTET) Level-2 (Social Science Stream) Practice Sets Book For 2021 Agrawal ExamCart
Note: All the study notes are available in Hindi as well as the English language. Click on A/अ to change the language.


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