Agriculture, Study Notes, Material – CTET Paper 2

By BYJU'S Exam Prep

Updated on: September 25th, 2023

In this article, we should read related to the Agriculture, Important for the CTET Paper-2.


Agriculture is the art and science of cultivating the soil, growing crops, and raising livestock. It includes the preparation of plant and animal products for people to use and their distribution to markets.

Agriculture provides most of the world’s food and fabrics. Cotton, wool, and leather are all agricultural products. Agriculture also provides wood for construction and paper products.


Agriculture— It is the science and art of cultivation on the soil, raising of crops, and rearing of livestock. It is also known as farming.

Farm System

Agriculture or farming is a system that requires seeds, fertilizers, machinery, and labor. Tasks like plowing, sowing, irrigation, weeding, and harvesting are the inputs, and crops, wool, dairy, and poultry products are the output of the system.

Types of Farming

Farming practices differ according to the geographic conditions, the demand for the product, labor, and the level of technology required.

Farming can be categorized into two main types:

  • Subsistence farming
  • Commercial farming

1. Subsistence Farming, which is practiced majorly to meet the needs of the family. It incorporates traditional ways and technology. Majorly household labor is preferred and used for such farming. It can be further classified as:

Intensive subsistence Agriculture – the practice of cultivating on a small plot of land and with the help of simple tools and larger labor primitive subsistence farming. Such farming is relevant for some crops including rice, wheat, maize, pulses, and oilseeds. Such type of farming in India is dependent on the monsoon.

Primitive Subsistence Agriculture – agriculture comprises shifting cultivation and nomadic herding. This cultivation is practiced in the areas of the Amazon basin, tropical Africa, parts of Southeast Asia, and Northeast India. These areas receive heavy rainfall and the vegetation regenerates at a faster pace.

Slash & Burn agriculture – Trees and other plants of a particular area are cut and burned down. Ashes are mixed with the soil which enhances the soil properties. When the soil loses its fertility the area is left abandoned and this complete practice is performed on a fresh piece of land.

2. Commercial farming is when farmers grow crops and rear livestock for commercial purposes. This types of farming require a high amount of output, farmers cultivate larger fields, with heavy usage of machinery. Commercial Farming has three main divisions:

  • Commercial grain farming – In this practice, farmers grow grains and sell them in the market. Wheat and maize are the most common product of commercial grain farming.
  • Plantation farming – Plantation farming is done with the contribution of both agriculture and industry and is practiced across a vast area of land. Plantation owners usually grow a single crop like coffee, tea, banana, etc. in this type of farming farmers use technological support to prepare the crop on the farm itself or in a factory connected to it. 
  • Mixed farming – Mixed cropping, is the practice of growing two or more crops simultaneously in the same field. This farming method includes the cultivation of crops, rearing livestock, and growing the fodder for the livestock altogether. 


A crop is a cultivated plant that is planted and grown on a large scale for commercial uses.

Classification of crops –

  • Kharif – Kharif crop also known as the autumn crop or monsoon crop are the plants which are cultivated in the monsoon season which extends from June to September. Examples are Rice, Corn, and Maize
  • Rabi – Rabi crops are the crops that are cultivated during the rabi season typically extending between September to April.
    These plants are cultivated in the spring seasons.
    Examples are Wheat, barley, and mustard.
  • Zaid – The crops which are grown between April and September or between Rabi and Kharif season is known as the Zaid crop.
    Examples are pumpkin and cucumber.

Cropping Pattern

Cropping pattern refers to the ratio of land under different types of crops at a particular duration of time. A change in cropping pattern implies a change in the ratio of land under various crops.

Crop Rotation

Crop rotation refers to the practice of planting a series of various crops of different types so that the land is not exploited for only one type of mineral. Generally, after a cereal crop, farmers prefer to grow pulses as they tend to fix the atmospheric nitrogen back into the soil with the help of nitrogen-fixing bacteria present in their root nodules.


Intercropping is the process of growing two or more crops together in order for them to achieve maximum yield through natural processes.

Crop Production Management

Crop production and management refer to the process of growing crops and providing all the nutrients needed by that crop to give maximum yield.

Nutrient Management

It is the practice in which farmers focus on providing proper nutrients to the soil in order to use it efficiently and in a way that is eco-friendly and gives optimum yield.


Manure is the natural form of fertilizer that is obtained by decomposing dead plants and organisms or from their feces.

Compost and Vermicompost

It is the product of the composting process in which various species of worms, such as red wigglers, white worms, and other earthworms are used to obtain a mixture of decomposing vegetable or food waste for manure purposes.

Green manure

It is a kind of fertilizer in which growing plants are plowed back into the soil and are used to provide necessary nutrients to the soil.
Uses of manure –
1. Used as fertilizer in agriculture.
2. Adds nutrients to the soil.
3. It is eco-friendly and so doesn’t damage the soil productivity.
4. It is a much better alternative for chemical fertilizers.


A fertilizer is any material artificial or natural which can be used to enhance soil productivity and increase yield.
Uses of fertilizers –
1. Used to supply additional nutrients to the crop.
2. Required to increase yield.
3. Improves the fertility of crops.


It is a type of fertilizer that contains living microorganisms and is useful for enhancing the growth of the crop.


It is the practice in which crops are watered in constant intervals of time that helps in maintaining a healthy environment for the crop to grow in.

Crop Protection Management

It is the practice of managing the plant in order to protect it from pests, weeds, rodents, etc.


Weeds are unwanted plants that grow among the crop. These are hazardous because they use too much of the land’s nutrition.

Storage of grains

After harvesting, the grains are vulnerable to moisture so in order to protect grains from ruining, they are stored in a protective environment. When the grains are in large quantities, this is obtained by storing them in gunny bags (jute bags) or by storing them in grain silos.

This article tends to be beneficial for the following exams – REET, UPTET, CTET, Online Classroom Program TET, DSSSB, KVS etc.

Suggested Read Books:

Serial No. Book Name Author Name
1. CTET Success Master Social Science/Studies Paper-2 for Class 6 to 8 2020 Arihant Experts
2. CTET & TETs Solved Papers – Paper II Teacher Selection for Class VI to VIII Social Studies/Science Arihant Experts

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