Development and its Relation with Learning, CDP Study Notes, Material

By BYJU'S Exam Prep

Updated on: September 25th, 2023

The concept of Development and its Relationship with Learning is an important CDP topic for the upcoming CTET exam 2022. It is important to have better clarity for the section to score good marks in this section. Learning is a process of development that may occur only with dedicated time in children. Aspirants must check the best Development and its Relationship with Learning study notes to understand this topic in deep. 

In this article, the Concept of Development and its Relation with Learning will be explained in brief. One must include this topic in exam preparation for the upcoming CTET Exam. Check the best Development and its Relationship with Learning Study material to prepare this section. 

Development and its Relationship with Learning will include the following topics according to the questions being asked in the CTET Paper:

1. Development

2. Highlights of Development

3. Stage of Human Development


Development is a process that includes growth, maturation, and learning. Its general psychological sense refers to certain changes that occur in human beings or animals between conception and death. It is a change where a person develops and changes from dependency to autonomy. These changes appear in orderly ways and are relatively permanent. Development refers to both quantitative as well as qualitative changes. It includes changes not only in structure but also in function. Development can only be assessed.

  • According to E.Hurlock: “Development is not limited to the growing layer. Instead, it consists of a progressive series of changes towards the goal of maturity”. Due to development, new abilities grow in a man.
  • According to Heinz Werner: “Development consists of two processes integration and differentiation”.
  • According to JE Anderson: “Development is concerned with growth as well as those changes in behaviour which results from environmental situations”.
  • According to Jersild, Telford, and Sawrey: “Development refers to the complex set of the process involved in the emergence of a mature functioning organism from fertilized ovum”.


Growth is defined as the physical increase in the size of the body. Increase in weight, height, and internal organs. It takes place in the physical aspect only. It refers to a quantitative change. It can be measured.

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Highlights of Development:

Following are some characteristics of development

  • Development is an orderly process to follow a certain sequence.

         Infancy→Early childhood→Later childhood→Adolescence →Maturity

  • Development refers to both quantitative as well as qualitative changes.
  • It is possible to predict the rate of development by seeing a slow learner and a superior child, but it cannot be predicted accurately.
  • Growth can be defined as one part of development, whereas, development is associated with an overall change in a person’s growth
  • Development can occur without growth.
  • People develop at different rates. Individual differences are caused by differences in heredity, endowments, and environmental influences.

Stage of Human Development:

  • Prenatal Period:- Until the birth
  • Infancy:- Birth to Two weeks
  • Babyhood:- Two weeks to Two years
  • Childhood:- Two years to Ten or Twelve years
  • a) Early childhood:- Two years to six years
  • b) Later childhood:– Six years to Twelve years
  • Pre-Adolescence:- Eleven years to Thirteen years (Girls), Twelve years to Fourteen years (Boys)
  • Adolescence:- Thirteen years to Seventeen years
  • Later Adolescence:- Seventeen years to Nineteen or Twenty years
  • Adulthood:– Twenty-one years to Forty years
  • Middle Age:– Forty to Sixty years
  • Old Age:– Sixty onward

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Three Main Stages for a Child’s Overall Development and Education:

  1. Early childhood
  2. Later childhood
  3. Adolescence

Early childhoodIn this stage, children like to do work independently. They don’t like anyone to intervene in their work. They spend a lot of time playing with toys. Children show disobedience, aggression, and antagonistic behaviour at this stage. It is a sensitive period of language development. At this stage children are ready for school, learn to identify the member of the family, and get involved in their surroundings. Children are very curious at this stage; they love to experiment with things.

Later childhood: This stage is known by many names such as the elementary stage, the troublesome stage, and the latency stage. During this stage, children learn the value of their societies. This stage is very significant in the development process. Children engage themselves in academic activities. They start making friends, Best friends are important at this stage. Whatever they learn and experience at this stage, greatly influences their later life, academically and otherwise. They develop their creative potential at this stage.

Adolescence: This stage is also known as the stage of “stress and storm”. Children face many social, biological, and personal changes during this stage. These changes make adolescence a difficult period to manage so this is the most critical stage of development in a person’s life. In this stage, hormonal influences play a leading role to attain sexual maturity.

Topical Areas in Child Development

Human development can be divided into the following domains

  • Physical Domain
  • Cognitive Domain
  • Social and Emotional Domain
  • Moral Domain
  • Language Domain
  • Personal Domain

Physical Domain: This domain is related to the development of one’s physical aspects. It is associated with quantitative changes that occur in the body. This development is also called maturation.

Physical Domain includes:

  • Gross motor development:- Example-legs and arms.
  • Fine motor development:- Example-hands and fingers
  • Sensory-motor development:- Example-vision, touch, and smell
  • Cephalo-caudal development:- where development takes place from head to toe. According to this development the child first gains control of the head, then the arm, then the leg.
  • Proximo-distal development:-where development starts in the centre and then moves to the periphery. Accordingly, the spinal cord develops before other parts of the body.

Cognitive Domain: This domain is related to the development of one’s intelligence. the ability to think, reason, and analyze is known as cognition, and the development of these abilities is known as cognitive development. Jean Piaget was a significant influence in this domain because of his theory of cognitive development.

Social and Emotional Domain: According to Hurlock, “Social development means the acquisition of the ability to have by social exceptions”.This domain is an indicator of social development among children. Children develop social skills like sharing, cooperation, and patience in their interactions with peers and others. The emotional Domain refers to the ability to control and manage one’s emotions. Emotional development can also be understood as social development as it develops concerning social life.

Moral Domain: In this domain, children develop moral ideas, character, right attitudes, and behaviour towards other people in society. Children cannot make moral judgments until they achieve a certain level of cognitive maturity.

According to Piaget, the child is someone who constructs his moral worldview and forms ideas about right and wrong. He believed that children made moral judgments based on their observations of the world.

Kohlberg divided moral development into three levels.

  • Pre-conventional
  • Conventional
  • Post-conventional

Language Domain: Language is an important way of communication. In this domain, communication uses words and symbols to express thoughts, feelings, and desires.

Personal Domain: All individuals have a different way of development. Under this Domain, we explore how individual personality changes.

Factors Influencing Growth and Development

Following are some important factors that influence growth and development.

  • Genetic
  • Nutritional
  • Environment
  • Sex
  • Early stimulation
  • Child-rearing practice

Learning:-According to crow and crow, “the learning involves the acquisition of habits, knowledge, and attitudes”.

According to EL Thorndike, “Learning is a gradual process where the individual will make many attempts to learn”.

The Relation Between Learning and Development:

It is important to understand the relationship between development and learning.

  • Some believe that learning leads to development whereas others contend that development leads to learning (Piaget).
  • Learning awakens the developmental processes through social interactions with peers and teachers in such a way that it would not occur if the child were in isolation.
  • A safe environment is essential for development and learning. Children need to feel free to express themselves. It is the responsibility of the school, home, and community to provide a safe and secure environment for children. This helps in learning and developing his mental and behavioural abilities to adjust or survive in his life.
  • Early development is very crucial for further development and learning.
  • The kind of experience a child goes through in the early stages has a profound influence on his or her later life. Irrespective of whether the experience is good or bad, childhood happenings influence both learning and development.
This article tends to be beneficial for the following exams – REETUPTETCTETSuper TETDSSSBKVS, etc.
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Best CTET Books for CDP Preparation

The Development and its Relationship with Learning is an important topic for the upcoming exam and it is important to refer to only the best CTET Books to prepare for the important topics for the CDP section. Check some of the best books as suggested by a subject expert to prepare for the CTET exam.
Serial No. Book Name Author Name
1. CTET and TETs Child Development and Pedagogy Paper 1 and 2  Arihant Experts
2. CTET Child Development and Pedagogy for Paper 1 and Paper 2  By Pearson (Sandeep Kumar)
3. Educating Exceptional Children: An Introduction to Special Education  Mangal S.K


Development and its Relation with Learning, CDP Study Notes, Material

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