Child Development Principle, CDP Study Notes, Material

By BYJU'S Exam Prep

Updated on: September 25th, 2023

Aspirants should read the Child Development & Pedagogy Study Notes on Child Development Principle, Factor Influence of heredity and environment topic. This topic is useful and important for upcoming CTET 2022, UPTET, HTET, REET and Other TET Exams.

The Principle of Child Development:

With the help of given child development principles, we can easily identify how children are developing and at which stage they are. And these also help us to predict children’s developmental rates and which order they will follow. Further Study can be done by keeping in mind the individual’s similarities as well as individual differences.

1. Principle of cephalo-caudal

  • Development proceeds from head to toe
  • 6 to 12 months infants
  • coordination of arms before leg

2. Principle of proximal-distal

  • Centre to outward
  • The spinal cord develops first then the outer parts of the body.

Note: Both above principles denote the Direction of Development.

3. Principle of Simple to Complex

  • Skills related to mental or intellectual abilities and skills related to verbal comprehension are used by the child to solve the problem.
  • for example, if the child must learn to classify the object so kite and aeroplane may be the same for her because they both fly in the sky.
  • This type of response is associated with the first level of thinking and based on thoughts existing between the two.
  • But in the later stage of learning, they will be able to understand more complex similarities and differences between these objects.
  • For example, they will try to understand that kites and aeroplanes do belong to different categories.

4. Principle of continuous process

  • Addition or accumulation or deposition in skills takes place continuously.
  • Regular-continuous deposition in the skills leads to the accomplishment of the more difficult task.
  • The development of One-stage helps in the development of another stage.
  • for example, in language development child starts from babbling and then proceeds further in more accomplishment of the language.

5. Principle of general to specific

  • The infant’s motor movements are very generalized and Undirected.
  • firstly Gross/large muscle motor movement development takes place then moving forward to more refined smaller/ fine motor muscle movements.

6. Principle of Individual rates of growth and development

  • Everyone is different that’s why their rates are too.
  • Patterns and Sequences for development are generally the same but rates differ.
  • That’s why there should be no such notion as the average child because everyone proceeds according to their rates.
  • so, we can’t compare two children based on their intellectual development or one child’s progress with another.
  • Along with its rates of development are also not uniform for all children.

How knowledge and understanding of these principles would help you as a teacher??

  • Planning of activities to be done in the classroom and outside.
  • It Will help in producing cognitive effects of experiences for learners.

Factor Influence on heredity and environment

  • Nature versus nurture.
  • Heredity versus environment.
  • Genetic Influences vs Environmental Influences
  • Innate/ Inborn qualities vs Personal/ Acquired experiences.

1. Plato and Socrates: Qualities and traits are inborn and they just occur naturally regardless of environmental influences.

2. J. Locke and Tabula Rasa: He suggested the mind starts as blank Slate means all we have been formed throughout all years of our life because of our experiences regardless of genetic influence.

But in reality, there is an interaction between genes and the environment. Nature and Nurture both affect the development of a person. The main thing if we want to understand the complexity of the living organism (here stands for the human being) is to study Genes, Environment and their interaction mean interaction between Genes and Environment.

This article tends to be beneficial for the following exams – REET, UPTET, CTET, HTET, KVS, DSSSB etc.

Suggested Read Books:

Serial No. Book Name Author Name

CTET and TETs Child Development and Pedagogy Paper 1 and 2 

Arihant Experts


CTET Child Development and Pedagogy for Paper 1 and Paper 2 

By Pearson (Sandeep Kumar)


Educating Exceptional Children: An Introduction to Special Education

 Mangal S.K


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