Meaning of Teaching Aids:
In the teaching of social studies at the upper primary level teaching material serve as a means to help a teacher to introduce or explain a topic effectively. Fair or well-planned teaching takes place in the presence of teaching aid only. Teaching material makes the teaching-learning process interesting by breaking the dullness in the classroom. Effective teaching aids increase the process of the teaching-learning process. Teaching material activates the cognitive, affective and psychomotor domains of students learning.
Purpose of using teaching-learning materials:
Various serve the purpose of using teaching-learning material in social science teaching:
- Teaching-learning materials help in making learning easy.
- Teaching-learning materials help in making learning remain in the minds of the learners for a longer time.
- Teaching-learning materials help in making the lesson more interesting.
- Teaching-learning materials enable the teacher to express the intended concepts of learning effectively.
- Teaching aids in social studies and helps in illustrating natural phenomena like volcanoes, rain, earthquakes etc.
- Teaching aid in social studies teaching helps to define an idea or concept in a better way. For example: to explain the direction on a map or a globe.
- Teaching aid helps refresh and reinforce students learning when there is difficulty in creating a real atmosphere or situation related to the topic.
Characteristics of Teaching Aids:
Following are the characteristics of teaching aids are:
- Teaching aids should be up to date in every aspect.
- Teaching aids should be simple and improvised from time to time.
- Teaching aids should be exact and truthful.
- Teaching aids should be informative and according to the mental level of the students.
Classification of teaching aids: Teaching aids are of three types -
Audio aids: Audio aids are those aids of teaching which we can hear only. These aids make use of hearing sense only. For example Tape recorders, language laboratories etc.
Visual aids: These aids make use of the learner’s visual sense or organs only. For example chalkboards, charts, maps, pictures, flashcards, maps, posters etc.
Audio-visual aids: These are the aids in which learners make use of hearing as well as the visual senses of the learners. These aids help in attaining the cognitive, affective and psychomotor domains of the learners. For example Television, OHP, films, computers, slides, etc
Selection of Teaching Aids:
- Teaching aids should be child-centred and able to make learning easy for the child.
- Teaching aids orders should be selected in such a way that can fulfil the educational objectives.
- Teaching aid should select according to the interest and aptitude of the learner.
- Teaching aids should be based on the curiosity of the learners and helps in motivating the learners.
- Should be selected in such a way that reinforces the learning in students.
Advantages of Teaching Aids:
- Teaching aids help in attracting the attention of the learners.
- Teaching aids help in maintaining healthy interaction and a positive environment in the class.
- Teaching aids help in meeting individual differences among the learners.
- Teaching aids help in making learning permanent in the learners.
- Teaching aids helps in saving the time of teacher as well as learners.
- Teaching aids help in converting abstract ideas into concrete ideas.
Disadvantages of teaching aids:
- Teaching aid is expensive to implement.
- Teaching aids distract the attention of the learners from the instructor or teachers.
- For employing an audio-visual aid, the size of the room should be taken into consideration. Classroom size should not be so large or should not be so small. It should according to the strength of the students
- Audiovisual consumes a lot of time while implementation.
Audio-Visual Teaching Material:
Audiovisual aids are those learning materials which use both the senses of learners i.e. hearing, visual, audiovisual aids are of the following types:
Television: Nowadays, TV is one of the best teaching materials that provide information related to various social science topics. Many channels provide knowledge related to history, geography, polity etc. some of them are discovery, national geographic, Animal planet, news channels etc.
Educational films: Audiovisual aids affect all the domains of learning of students. An educational film is the audio-visual aid of teaching. Educational films help in a faster and deeper understanding of the topics of social science such as historical films related to various national political leaders, freedom fighters etc.
Overhead Projectors: It is used to display an image to the students or learners. In social science, a teacher can use OHP as a teaching aid while explaining content such as maps, hierarchies of civilization, classification, continents etc.
Computer/Laptop: It is the most widely used teaching material nowadays. With the help of the internet, all the information is available. A teacher can search or store any information for future use. With the help of a computer and laptop PowerPoint presentations can be prepared which makes the teaching and learning process attractive and understandable.