Evaluation and Types of Evaluation
- Evaluation is defined as a process of collecting evidences of behavioural changes and judging the directions and extents of such changes. It is firmly identified with objectives and learning exercises from one viewpoint, and improvement of guidelines on the other.
1. Important elements of evaluation
- Testing: Testing is a ground for fundamental examination, a strategy for looking at, standard or standard for correlation, a preliminary for individual's characteristics, ground for choice/dismissal, and an instrument utilized to uncover the nearness or nonappearance of ideal quality. Testing has become an internal part of all instructional programmes.
- Measurement: It is principally involved with the assortment or gathering of information. For example, students score in an examination. The measurement includes allotting a score on a given undertaking performed by the student, for instance, 70/100.
- Assessment: It covers exercises incorporated into evaluating, looking at, grading, certifying and so forth. For instance, a student's accomplishment on a specific course, a candidate's demeanour for a specific occupation and an educator's competency in instructing might be surveyed.
- Examination: The term is used in school to assess the growth of students in terms of their scholastic achievement. The examinations are directed at various stages consistently i.e, periodic tests, half yearly examination and yearly examination.
- Appraisal: It is a process of evaluating qualities, characteristics, interests, attitudes and understanding. Teachers consider appraising the proficiencies of the learners for the purpose of diagnosis, classification, marking and grading. Good techniques are not available, that is why appraisal rests upon observations interpretations and finally upon subjective opinion.
Note: Evaluation is both a quantitative and qualitative process while the measurement is a quantitative or numerical value. Evaluation is a continuous process and an important part of the teaching-learning process.
2. Types of Evaluation
In the various phases of instruction, evaluation is integrated. The four sorts of evaluation are placement, formative, diagnostic and summative.
- Placement evaluation: It decides the learning and abilities the students have, which are important towards the start of guidance in a given branch of knowledge. The reason for placement assessment is to check the aptitude of a student for the course or subject, regardless of whether the student has a gauge or not. Different entrance exams can likewise be directed for a similar reason.
- Formative evaluation (also referred to as internal evaluation): It is a method for judging the worth of programmer activities are in process. This assessment furnishes the student with criticism in regards to his or her prosperity or disappointment in achieving the instructional objectives. It furthermore recognizes the specific learning blunder that must be rectified.
Note: Quizzes, unit tests and chapter tests are samples of evaluative instruments employed in this sort of evaluation.
- Diagnostic evaluation: The diagnostic evaluation goes a step further and tries to provide an explanation for the possible causes for problems in learning. Diagnostic tests are thus, more comprehensive and detailed.
- Summative evaluation (external evaluation): It is a method of judging the worth of a programmer at the end of the programmer activities(summation). The emphasis is on the result. It decides the degree to which destinations of guidance have been accomplished and is utilized for relegating course reviews. Summative assessment, by and large, incorporates oral reports, ventures, research projects, and educator made accomplishment tests, and it demonstrates how great or how acceptable the student is in achieving the destinations of guidance.
3. Evaluation in the Choice Based Credit System
- CBCS is the mother of learner-centric educational reforms.
- An understudy is given a scholastically rich, profoundly adaptable learning framework with an indispensable arrangement for ability practice and action introduction that the student could learn inside and out without giving up his imagination.
- An understudy can practice the choice to choose his own pace of learning, plan and sequence his choice of paper, learn to face challenges through term work/ project work/ and may venture out to acquire further knowledge/ proficiency through add on facilities.
- A student enjoys an extraordinary benefit that his evaluation would be in terms of grades, computed through a more scientific and a logical process of normalization which imbibes the advantages of relative advertisement of the performances against evaluating in an absolute method.
- CBCS is a strategy for the development of instructional changes that may yield the lead in consequent years and after a couple of cycles of its usage.
- Higher education these days, particularly in the Indian setting has expected real significance. Although working as one of the biggest frameworks of advanced education in the world and regardless of the way that India is a much-supported goal for training particularly among the creating nations, there are visit worries about the nature of instruction conferred and its general effect on the country’s nation-building process.
- National Assessment and Accreditation Council (NAAC) additionally gives extraordinary significance to finding out whether a Choice Based Credit System (CBCS) is set up in some random foundation while surveying it.
- CBCS is introduced for different reasons. UGC has outlined the several unique features of Choice-Based Credit System (CBCS).
Some important features of CBCS are:
- Enhanced learning opportunities.
- inter-institution transferability of learners.
- ability to match learners‟ scholastic needs and aspirations, part-finishing of a scholastic program in the organization of enrolment and part-consummation in a specific foundation.
- flexibility for working students to finish the program over an all-inclusive timeframe.
- improvement in educational quality and excellence,
- standardization and comparability of educational programs across the country, etc.
Advantages of CBCS:
(i) Choice Based Credit System is fundamental for advanced education in the present setting.
(ii) CBCS arrangements of courses cause the understudies to improve the interdisciplinary methodology in instruction.
(iii) Freedom to pick subjects which is gainful for students.
(iv) Respect Learner Autonomy Allows learners to choose according to their own learning needs, interests and aptitudes.
(v) Facilitates Learner Mobility: Offers to chance to learn at various occasions and in different places. Credit accomplished at one foundation will be exchanged to an alternate.
(vi) In this framework, understudies need not rehash the full semester if there is fail in one paper.
(vii) More self-governance is given to the understudies in this framework.
(viii) CBCS gives a multifaceted learning condition.
(ix) CBCS give create quality instruction.
(x) Helps in working out twinning projects.
(xi) Beneficial for accomplishing more straightforwardness and similarity between various educational structures.
Disadvantages of CBCS:
(i) Implementation of CBCS has some Practical restrictions.
(ii) It is complicated, particularly in the perspective on the lack of educators or foundations.
(v) It needs more punctuality from the student.
(vi) There is no advancement arrangement of assessment in this framework.
(vii) Students can have just halfway learned of any new subject picked by the student as additional credit subject.
(viii) Numbers of courses are forced in the CBCS, which is an overburden for the student as well as educators.
(ix) Shortage of framework offices for example building, research centre offices influences CBCS.
(x) Unfortunately, a huge area of the general public experiences inactivity and is, accordingly, reluctant to acknowledge any change.
(xi) The new framework which is anticipated usage has not been clarified.
(xii) Most of the instructors, scholarly executives are negligent to the mind-boggling details of examinations which influence their dependability, legitimacy and objectivity.
(xiii) There are personal stakes that propagate current practices.
(xiv) Additional time is required to get ready appropriate rules and manuals to empower the different partners in understanding the new framework.
We hope you all have understood the important points related to Teaching Aptitude: Evaluation Systems in this part of the 'Mini Series'. For the next Mini-Series, you can drop your suggestions in the comment box.
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