Study Notes on Wind Energy for UGC NET Paper-1

By Mohit Choudhary|Updated : June 3rd, 2022

The National Eligibility Test, also known as UGC NET or NTA-UGC-NET, is the examination for determining the eligibility for the post of assistant professor and/or Junior Research Fellowship award in Indian universities and colleges. There are 2 papers in UGC NET Exam i.e., Paper -1 and Paper - 2.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    

  • Wind energy refers to the process of creating electricity using the wind, or air that naturally occurs in the atmosphere of the earth.
  • Wind turbines are used to generate electricity by capturing the kinetic energy from the wind.

There are three main types of wind energy:

  • Utility-scale wind: In this, the size of wind turbines ranges from 100 kilowatts to several megawatts and they are connected to the power grid.
  • Distributed or "small" wind: In this, the size of the wind turbine is below 100 kilowatts and they are used in the home or small business. These are not connected to the grid.
  • Offshore wind: These are installed on larger bodies of water mainly on the continental shelf. These are larger than land-based and generate more power.

Windmills vs. Wind Turbines

  • There is a difference between these terms which sometimes people used interchangeably. 
  • For centuries windmills have been used to grind grain and pump water. Only mechanical energy is generated from the windmill.
  • In contrast, wind turbines harness the kinetic energy of wind and convert it into electricity.

What is a wind farm?

  • When a large number of wind turbines are installed close together, it functions as a single power plant and sends electricity to the power grid. This is called a Windfarm.

There are two basic types of wind turbines:

1. Horizontal-axis turbines

  • Horizontal-axis turbines have blades like airplane propellers, and they commonly have three blades.
  • Taller turbines with longer blades generate more electricity. Nearly all of the wind turbines currently in use are horizontal-axis turbines.

2. Vertical-axis turbines

  • Vertical-axis turbines have blades that are attached to the top and the bottom of a vertical rotor.
  • Very few vertical-axis wind turbines are in use today because they do not perform as well as horizontal-axis turbines.

Onshore and Offshore wind energy

  • Wind energy today typically comes in two different “types”: onshore wind farms which are large installations of wind turbines located on land, and offshore wind farms which are installations located in bodies of water.
  • Onshore wind farms are the most popular type of wind farm in the world today, but there is growing interest in the developed countries to construct offshore wind farms


  • Renewable energy
  • Inexhaustible
  • Not pollutant
  • Reduces the use of fossil fuels
  • Reduces energy imports
  • Creates wealth and local employment
  • Contributes to sustainable development


  • The part of wind energy in global energy consumption is over 3 % and this is expected to exceed 5 % by 2020. 
  • International Energy Agency forecasts that wind energy could meet the global electricity demand of 9 percent and over 20 percent in Europe.

Wind power in India

  • India has significantly improved wind power generation capacity. 
  • Today, the total installed wind power capacity is 38.124 GW, the fourth largest installed wind power capacity in the world.
  • Wind power capacity is mainly spread across the Southern, Western, and Northern regions.

Offshore wind power plants

  • India has an offshore wind energy potential of around 70 GW in parts along the coast of Gujarat and Tamil Nadu.
  • In September 2015, India's cabinet has approved the National Offshore Wind Energy Policy. With this, the Ministry of New & Renewable Energy (MNRE) has been authorized as the Nodal Ministry for use of offshore areas within the Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ)

World’s top 10 countries in wind energy capacity

1. China

2. The United States

3. Germany

4. India

5. Spain

6. The United Kingdom

7. France

8. Brazil

9. Canada

10. Italy

India’s top 9 states by installed wind power capacity

1. Tamil Nadu

2. Gujarat

3. Maharashtra

4. Karnataka

5. Rajasthan

6. Andhra Pradesh

7. Madhya Pradesh

8. Telangana

9. Kerala

India’s top 9 states by potential wind power capacity

1. Gujarat

2. Rajasthan

3. Maharashtra

4. Tamil Nadu

5. Madhya Pradesh

6. Karnataka

7. Andhra Pradesh

8. Kerala

9. Telangana

10. Odisha

India's largest wind power production facilities (10MW and greater)

1. Muppandal windfarm- Tamil Nadu

2. Jaisalmer Wind Park- Rajasthan

3. Brahmanvel windfarm- Maharashtra

4. Dhalgaon windfarm- Maharashtra

5. Vankusawade Wind Park- Maharashtra

6. Vaspet- Maharashtra

7. Tuljapur- Maharashtra

8. Beluguppa Wind Park- Andhra Pradesh

9. Mamatkheda Wind Park- Madhya Pradesh

10. Anantapur Wind Park- Andhra Pradesh

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We hope you understood all about Wind Energy for Paper-1 for the UGC NET Exam

Thank you, Team Byju's Exam Prep.


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