- A learner is someone who is learning about a particular subject or how to do something.
- Learning can take place without teaching, but teaching cannot happen without some form of learning.
- The learner can learn even in the absence of the teacher, but a teacher is required for students.
- According to Smith, teaching is a set of activities that induce learning.
Learner's Characteristics :
On the basis of various definitions we can say that learning has the following characteristics:
- The main objective of learning is to bring about a change in the behaviour of the students, it affects every aspect of the behaviour.
- Learning means acquiring knowledge, remembering and organizing and refining experience.
- The approach establishes a new relationship between the stimulus and the response.
- Learning is meaningful and goal-directed.
- The access environment is generated.
- Learning can also be understood to mean developing a process of solving problems.
- Learning is an active and creative method, it continues throughout life.
- Learning is possible only through knowledge, understanding and willpower.
- The desire to learn arises from individual and social needs.
- Learning is universal.
- The learning process involves many mental activities, including guidance, interpretation, selection, insight, creation, criticism. These processes help in making learning effective. Learning is a multidimensional process, so it should be built around a few key concepts. Some scholars consider it a process, not an outcome.
According to the constructivist perspective, learning objectives are contextual, new learners make up their own meaning, it can never be 100% certain that they will learn as a teacher would. wants, but such an environment can be created that the learner can make efforts in that direction.
The essence of the learning objectives is also included in the curriculum.
Learners can be categorised as follows:
1. On the basis of personal attributes
- Includes demographic information of learner.
- Age, gender, maturity level, language, socio-economic status, cultural background, etc.
- Expectations and vocational aspirations.
- Special talents.
- Ability to work under various environmental conditions.
2. On the basis of learning styles
- This refers to how learners receive and process information.
- These could be Visual (Pictures, diagrams, and demonstrations), Auditory (words and sounds), Intuitive (Insights and hunches), actively (Physical engagement or discussion).
3. On the basis of social attributes
- It is based on the relation of a group or of an individual within the group.
- It is based Group structure, place of the individual within a group, sociability, self-image, mood, etc.
4. On the basis of listening skills
- Active learning: In this students are actively or experimentally involved in the learning process.
- Empathetic listening: It is a form of active listening in which you attempt to understand the other person. Learner goes through stages such as acting, meaning, imagination, perspective-taking and feeling.
- Evaluative listening or critical listening: In this type, the listener evaluates the accuracy, meaningfulness, and utility of speaker’s message.
- Appreciative: Listening for enjoyment involves seeking situations involving relaxing, fun, or emotionally stimulating information.
5. On the basis of Thinking styles
- Reflective Thinking: It means taking the bigger picture and understanding all of its consequences. It means trying to understand why you did what you did, and why that’s important.
- Creative Thinking: It means creating and forming their own solutions and shortcuts.
- Practical thinking: Always looking for factual information. Seeking the simplest and the most efficient way to do their work. In this thinker is not satisfied until they know how to apply their new skills to their job or other interest.
- Conceptual Thinking: Accepting new information only after seeing the big picture. Thinkers want to know how things work, not just the final outcome.
Characteristics of Good learners
- Enjoys learning and face the hardship that arises in the journey.
- Learn new things while finding answers to their questions.
- Relate new knowledge with their existing knowledge.
- Always find time for reading, analysing and evaluating the knowledge gathered.
- Always persistent in gathering knowledge.
- Solve the real-life problem with their knowledge.
- Free from jealousy, greed, anger and other negative emotions.
- Always curious to learn.
- The signs of learning disabilities are recognised during the school days.
- Most often these include difficulties in reading and writing.
- The person with learning disabilities look perfectly ‘normal’ and seems to be very bright and intelligent person, yet may be unable to demonstrate the skills that are shown by his/her peers.
- A learning disability cannot be cured, it is a life-long challenge but with appropriate support and intervention, people with learning disabilities can achieve success in school, at work, in relationships, and in the community.
Types of Learning Disorders
1. Dyscalculia: Students suffering from this disorder have difficulty in understanding mathematics and numbers, arithmetical operations, signs, etc.
2. Dysgraphia: it is related to handwriting and leads to poor handwriting, inconsistent spacing, wrong spellings, etc.
3. Dyslexia: It is related to problems in reading like in recognising and understanding letter and words, low fluency, etc.
4. Dysphasia or Aphasia: It is related to a problem in understanding a spoken language marked by a deficiency in the generation of speech.
5. Non-Verbal: It is related to having trouble in interpreting non-verbal cues like facial expressions or body language and may have poor coordination.
6. Verbal: It affects an individual’s understanding to express or communicate.
7. Attention-deficit/ Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): It is related to difficulty in staying focused and paying attention, controlling behaviour and hyperactivity.
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We hope you all have understood the important points related to Paper 1 'Mini Series' part 2 on Teaching Aptitude. For the next Mini-Series, you can drop your suggestions in the comment box.
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