UGC NET Study Notes On Research Aptitude

By Mohit Choudhary|Updated : August 8th, 2022



  • A paper is defined as an essay or dissertation read at a seminar or published in a journal.
  • It represents a viewpoint and research work about a topic, which is supported by the work of others on the same or relevant topics.
  • Research paper- It includes all the steps of research such as literature survey, data collection and so on.
  • A paper can be based on theory and material available or can be based on an experiment.
  • Term paper- it is to be submitted at the end of the term by students and is based on the term. It provides the experience of research to students and students learn about how to write a term paper.


  • It is written by scholars and scientists in magazine and newspaper.
  • This is also related to research and presents the view of a writer on a topic.
  • It is informative in nature and typically addresses the topic in general.
  • A research article is written by the researcher regarding the new findings.
  • A research article explains the outcome of scientific research with the support of clinical data.
  • The research paper are then published in a peer-reviewed journal. Peer review means review by two or more experts from the same field of research.
  • Review Article is based on a secondary source.
  • Secondary sources are those article or papers presented by the researcher on which have research has already been conducted based on Primary source.
  • A review article has nothing new about the topic on which it is written.
  • It just provides a critical review or summarizes the available literature to explain the understanding of the topic.
  • The reader can access the knowledge by just reading one article rather than going through all the secondary sources.


  • In this, people come together to discuss the paper.
  • It can be called Symposium, conference, workshop, etc.


  • It is like a small-scale conference in which specialists deliver short addresses on a topic.
  • After the address is completed, the question answers follow.


  • In this form of seminar gathering of experts and specialists take place.
  • Only experts and specialists in the related field deliver the lecture on a particular topic.
  • Thereafter, questions and answers follow.


  • It is a formal meeting usually held once in a year.
  • Example- Indian Historical Congress, Indian Science Congress. These are held once a year at a specific place.
  • In this, all experts converged at a place and presents papers on their respective subjects.


  • It is a formal meeting of people with a shared interest.
  • It is bigger than the seminar and lasts for more days than seminars.
  • It involves a complete analysis of a topic with a discussion between the participants for concluding results.
  • Conference include keynotes and presentations delivered to all attendees, as well as multiple break-out sessions.
  • The conference could be of multiple types- business conference, parent-teacher conference, academic conference, business conference, etc.


  • It is even smaller than the seminar and here the discussion is more intense.
  • It is more practical in nature.
  • In this participant not only listens but participates in a practical way.
  • It is organized to provide and improve skills.


  • This is a form of seminar which takes place over the internet.
  • In this presentation is done in audio and video components.
  • Participants sitting at one end of the world can attend the seminar.
  • It is very economical and very less arrangements need to be done.
  • Good internet connection is the only requirement in this form of seminar.
  • We are seeing a lot of seminars taking place on the web due to the coronavirus pandemic.

We hope you all got the idea about all the above concepts related to Teaching Aptitude for UGC NET Exam 2022.

All the best

Team BYJU'S Exam Prep


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