UGC NET Study Notes on Sustainable Development Goals

By Mohit Choudhary|Updated : September 25th, 2022

Sustainable Development Goals and India: Most Important Points

  • The Sustainable Development Goals are a series of measures to end poverty, protect the planet and ensure the global well-being of human beings.
  • It is a group of 17 goals with 169 targets and 304 indicators and was proposed by the United Nations General Assembly to be achieved by 2030.

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  • The SDGs are a series of intergovernmental agreement formulated to end poverty, protect the environment and planet earth and ensure overall well-being and all-around development of human beings.
  • Its predecessor was the Millennium Development Goals. The MDGs were 8 goals with measurable targets and deadlines to improve the lives of poor across the world. For the same, the historic millennium declaration at the UN Millennium Summit in 2000 was signed. The deadline to achieve the 8 targets was decided to be 2015.
  • SDGs is the outcome of Rio+20 conference (2012) held in Rio De Janeiro and is a non-binding document. 

Expected Question for UGC NET 2022

1. Sustainable Development Goals is the outcome of which conference? - Rio+20 Conference

2. Sustainable Development Goals has how many goals? - 17 goals

  • The SDGs are broader in scope and are set for the time period 2015-2030.
  • With the collaboration of the Ministry of Statistics & Programme Implementation (MoSPI), Global Green Growth Institute and United Nations in India, the SDG India index was launched.  
  • The SDG index is composed of a composite score for each of the Indian states based on their performance across 13 SDG.
  • The aim of the SDG index is to inculcate competition amongst the state to give an impetus to their performances towards achieving their SDG goals.
  • According to NITI Aayog CEO Amitabh Kant and the UN among the Indian states, Himachal Pradesh, Kerala, and Tamil Nadu have topped the list in achieving key SDG goals while Assam, Bihar and Uttar Pradesh are the laggards.
  • Kerala’s performance can be attributed to its exemplary performance in providing good health, low incidents of hunger and malnourishment, gender equality and quality education. Himachal Pradesh stood where it is on account of its success in providing clean water and sanitation and preserving the mountain ecosystem. Tamil Nadu has succeeded on account of its provision of clean energy to people and reduced poverty.  
  • The nation in totality has a score of 58, according to the SDG India Index. It depicts that the country has reached a little more than the halfway mark in meeting the SDG goals.
  • The index covers 13 out of the 17 goals. Left out goals include 12,13,14 and 17.


  • According to NITI Aayog, progress on SDGs 12, 13 & 14 could not be measured as relevant State/UT level data were not available and SDG 17 was left out as it focuses on international partnerships.
  • NITI Aayog has also urged the Finance commission to use the SDG index as a tool to be used in sharing the central government’s divisible pool of tax revenue with states. 
  • NITI Aayog opines that this index will not only propel competition amongst the states but will lead to a lot of changes at the grassroots level.

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