Study Notes on Solar Energy in India for Paper-1

By Ashwani Tyagi|Updated : August 5th, 2021


  • Solar energy is one of the renewable energies and it is defined as energy created by nuclear fusion that takes place in the sun.
  • Sunlight that passes through the atmosphere is mostly in the form of visible light and infrared radiation.
  • To convert solar energy into electricity, solar panels are used.
  • Solar light coming from the sun is necessary for life on earth, and it is harvested for clean energy as well.
  • Plants use the solar energy to convert into sugar and starches and this process of conversion is known as photosynthesis.
  • China is the largest producer of solar energy followed by USA, Japan, Germany and India.

India’s INDC goals

  • At U.N. Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) Conference of the Parties (COP21) in Paris in December 2015 countries committed to reducing global warming through their initiatives called Intended Nationally Determined Contributions (INDCs).
  • India's Intended Nationally Determined Contributions (INDC’s) commitment is to reduce the emissions intensity of its GDP by 33 to 35 per cent by 2030 from 2005 level.
  • Also, India aim to achieve about 40 per cent of installed power capacity from non-fossil fuel-based energy resources by 2030.
  • India aims to create an additional carbon sink of 2.5 to 3 billion tonnes of CO2 equivalent through additional forest and tree cover by 2030.


Solar Photovoltaic

  • Solar photovoltaic (SPV) cells convert solar radiation (sunlight) into electricity.
  • A solar cell is a semi-conducting device made of silicon and/or other materials, which, when exposed to sunlight, generates electricity.

Solar power in India

  • India’s solar energy installed capacity reached 35.12 GW on 30 June 2020
  • Indian government initial target was of 20 GW capacity for 2022.
  • But, in 2015 the target was raised to 100 GW of solar capacity in which 40 GW would be from rooftop solar and 60 GW through grid by 2022.
  • Today, rooftop solar power accounts for 2.1 GW, of which 70% is industrial or commercial.
  • India proposed International Solar Alliance (ISA) in 2015 paris summit
  • ISA is headquartered in India.
  • India has also intitiated the concept of “One Sun One World one Grid” to harness abundant solar power on a global scale.

Government initiatives

  • To tackle India's energy issue, Ministry of New and renewable energy is the nodal agency.
  • To promote ecologically sustainable growth and to address India energy requirement India proposed National Solar Mission.
  • To provide loans for renewable energy and energy efficiency projects requirement Indian Renewable Energy Development Agency (IREDA), a Non-Banking Financial Institution is the main authority.
  • Ministry of natural resources and environment created National institute of solar energy as an autonomous institution for Research and Development.
  • Government is also establishing solar parks for connecting them with grid connectivity infrastructure.
  • (SRISTI) scheme to promote rooftop solar power projects in india.
  • Suryamitra programme to prepare a qualified workforce.
  • Renewable purchase obligation for large energy consumer customers.
  • National green energy programme and green energy corridor.

India’s top 10 states by installed solar power capacity

1. Karnataka

2. Telangana

3. Rajasthan

4. Andhra Pradesh

5. Tamil Nadu

6. Gujarat

7. Madhya Pradesh

8. Maharashtra

9. Uttar Pradesh

10. Punjab

Top 10 Rooftop Solar States by Installed Capacity in India

1. Gujarat

2. Karnataka

3. Rajasthan

4. Maharashtra

5. Delhi

6. Tamil Nadu

7. Uttar Pradesh

8. Haryana

9. Punjab

10. Telangana

Top 10 States Have the Highest Solar Energy Potential in India

1. Rajasthan

2. Jammu & Kashmir

3. Maharashtra

4. Madhya Pradesh

5. Andhra Pradesh

6. Gujarat

7. Himachal Pradesh

8. Odisha

9. Karnataka

10. Uttar Pradesh

We hope you all understood about all Solar Energy related facts for upcoming UGC NET Exams.

Thank you, Team gradeup.

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Ashwani TyagiAshwani TyagiMember since Jun 2020
UGC NET Qualified 3 times (history)
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SunilMay 25, 2021

Very very thankful for in hindi pdf

SunilMay 25, 2021

Please पीछला notes भी हिंदी में provides kra dijiye
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RambirMay 25, 2021

Konse sub walo ke liye h air
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Manish SinghMay 25, 2021

Thanks sir ji

ChandaMay 26, 2021

Thanks sir ji 🙏
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Very helpful 👌sir

ErshadSep 20, 2021

Pooja Kaushik
Thanx u mam

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