UGC NET Study Notes On Research Tools

By Mohit Choudhary|Updated : August 8th, 2022


Data Collection

  • It is a methodical process of gathering and analyzing information about the relevant questions and then evaluating the results.
  • The data that is collected is subjected to hypothesis testing and to explaining the phenomenon.

Types of Data Collection

Primary Data Collection

  • It is the process of gathering data collection at the source.
  • Original data is collected by the researcher for a specific purpose.
  • It could be further analysed into Qualitative research and Quantitative data collection.

1. Qualitative Research Method 

  • In this form of research, method numbers are not used, rather it is based on qualitative aspects like emotion and feeling of the researcher.
  • An open-ended questionnaire is the best method in this.


1. Online forums

2. Online communities

3. Web survey chat

4. Online communities

5. In-depth interviews

2. Quantitative Method

It is presented in numbers and for deduction requires mathematical calculation.

The best method is using close-ended questions at arriving at a figure calculated mathematically.


1. Face to face

2. Online

3. Mail

4. Phone

Secondary Data Collection

  • It is referred to as collecting or gathering data second hand by a researcher who is not the original user.
  • The data is already in existence in the form of journals, published books or on online portals.
  • It is an easy and inexpensive way of collecting data.


1. The integrity of The Research

  • One of the prime reason for collecting date either through qualitative and quantitative method is to make sure that the research in question has integrity.

2. Reduce the errors

  • The researcher must use the methods which ensures that there is no error in the result.

3. Decision Making

  • The risk of error in decision making is minimized and the data is accurately collected, so the researcher doesn't make uninformed decisions.

4. Save Cost and Time

  • Data collection saves the researcher fund and time that would be misspent without an understanding of the subject or topic.

What is Data Collection Tools?

  • These are the instruments and devices used to collect data such as a questionnaire or interview done with the assistance of technology.
  • Tools used for collecting data are Questionnaires, Checklists, Case Studies, Interviews, Observation, and Surveys.


  • It is a face-to-face conversation that takes place between a researcher and the subject.
  • The purpose is to collect data for research from the subject.


1. Information given is In-depth.

2. Freedom of flexibility

3. Accurate data.


1. Time-consuming

2. Expensive to collect


  • In this, the researcher asks a series of questions and receive responses from the subject.
  • Questionnaires are mainly designed to collect data from a group.
  • In a questionnaire, three kinds of questions are used: fixed-alternative, scale, and open-ended.


1. Large number of people can be administered.

2. Can be used to compare data.

3. Easy to analyze.

4. Inexpensive from others.

5. Identity of the responder is protected.


1. Respondent may lose interest midway.

2. Respondent may answer dishonestly.

3. Some of the questions may be left unanswered.

4. A researcher may not analyze all questions.


  • It is the process of gathering and submitting data for further analysis.
  • The key to this is accurate reporting because inaccurate reporting leads to uninformed decision making.


1. Informed decision making.

2. Easily accessible.


1. The answer that is self-reported may be exaggerated.

2. Biasness in results.

3. Respondents not giving all details due to shyness.


  • The date is already there in existence. The researcher is doing further investigation based on the existing data.
  • An example would be sourcing data from an archive.


1. Very high accuracy.

2. Easy access to information.


1. Problems with evaluation.

2. Difficulty in understanding.


  • In this, data is gathered through observation by the researcher.
  • The nature of the observation could be done either as a complete observer, an observer as a participant, a participant as an observer or as a complete participant. 
  • This method is a key base of formulating a hypothesis.


1. It is easy to administer.

2. Great accuracy with results.

3. Unwilling respondents situation does not arrive in this.


1. Some phenomena aren’t open to observation.

2. It cannot be relied upon.

3. Bias may arise.

4. It is expensive to administer.

5. Its validity cannot be predicted accurately.

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We hope you all understood the Research tools for UGC NET Exam.

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Team BYJU'S Exam Prep


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