Study Notes on Panchayati Raj Institution for UGC NET Exam 2023

By Sakshi Ojha|Updated : February 9th, 2023

UGC NET Exam consists of paper-1 and Paper-2. The Higher Education system is the most important part of paper-1. Policies, governance and administration are the subsections of the Higher Education system. Always expect 1-2 questions on this topic. Today, we are providing study notes on Panchayati Raj institution for UGC NET Exam 2023. Always attempt mock tests to identify your weak areas. Happy learning.

  • Panchayati Raj institution was given constitutional status through the 73rd Constitutional Amendment Act of 1992.
  • It signifies the system of rural local self-government.
  • It has been established in all the states of India by the Acts of the state legislatures to build democracy at the grass root level.
  • Rajasthan was the first state to establish Panchayati Raj on October 2, 1959, in Nagaur district. Andhra Pradesh, thereafter, adopted the system in 1959.

Important committees

Balwant Rai Mehta Committee- 1957

It recommended the establishment of a three-tier panchayati raj system- gram panchayat at the village level, panchayat samiti at the block level and zila parishad at the district level.

Ashok Mehta Committee- 1977

It recommended that the three-tier system of panchayati raj should be replaced by the two-tier system, that is, zila parishad at the district level, and below it, the mandal panchayat consisting of a group of villages with a total population of 15,000 to 20,000.

G.V.K. Rao Committee-1985

It recommended leading role for decentralised system in field administration, in local planning and development.

L M Singhvi Committee- 1986

  • It recommended constitutional status for Panchayati Raj institutions
  • For this purpose, a new chapter should be added in the Constitution of India.

Thungon Committee- 1988

  • This committee also recommended constitutional status for Panchayati Raj institutions
  • A three-tier system of Panchayati Raj with panchayats at the village, block and district levels.
  • Zilla Parishad should be the pivot of the Panchayati Raj system. It should act as the planning and development agency in the district.
  • The Panchayati Raj bodies should have a fixed tenure of five years.
  • The maximum period of Online Classroom Program session of a body should be six months.

Gadgil Committee

Recommendation of Gadgil committee were

  • A constitutional status for Panchayati Raj institutions.
  • A three-tier system of Panchayati Raj with panchayats at the village, block and district levels.
  • The term of Panchayati Raj institutions should be fixed at five years.
  • The members of the Panchayats at all the three levels should be directly elected.
  • Reservation for SCs, STs and women.


  • Part-IX to the Constitution of India was added.
  • Part -IX consists of provisions from Articles 243 to 243 O.
  • In addition, the act has also added a new Eleventh Schedule to the Constitution.
  • Eleventh schedule contains 29 functional items of the panchayats.
  • This has given a practical shape to Article 40 (directive principles of state policy).

Important Features

  • Gram Sabha is the foundation of the panchayati raj system.
  • Gram Sabha consists of persons registered in the electoral rolls of a village comprised within the area of Panchayat at the village level.
  • It is a three-tier system that is, panchayats at the village, intermediate, and district levels.
  • However, a state having a population not exceeding 20 lakh may not constitute panchayats at the intermediate level. 


  • People will elect directly the members of panchayats at the village, intermediate and district levels.
  • Chairperson of panchayats at the intermediate and district levels shall be elected indirectly by and from amongst the elected members thereof.
  • Chairperson of a panchayat at the village level shall be elected in such manner as the state legislature determines. 

Reservation of Seats

  • Reservation of seats for scheduled castes and scheduled tribes in proportion of their population to the total population in the panchayat area at all three levels.
  • Reservation of not less than one-third of the total number of seats for women.
  • Further, not less than one-third of the total number of offices of chairpersons in the panchayats at each level shall be reserved for women.
  • This provision is not applicable to the state of Arunachal Pradesh.

Duration of Panchayats

  • Five-year is the tenure of panchayat at every level.
  • But, it can be dissolved before the completion of its term.
  • Fresh elections to constitute a panchayat shall be completed (a) before the expiry of its duration of five years; or (b) in case of dissolution, before the expiry of a period of six months from the date of its dissolution.

State Election Commission

SEC is vested with the power of superintendence, direction and control of the preparation of electoral rolls and the conduct of all elections at all three levels of Panchayati Institutions.

Exempted States and Areas

  • Nagaland, Meghalaya and Mizoram are exempted from the act.
  • Other areas exempted for the act are the scheduled areas and the tribal areas in the states (5th schedule), the hill areas of Manipur for which district councils exist, Darjeeling district of West Bengal for which Darjeeling Gorkha Hill Council exists.
  • To cover above areas as well Parliament has enacted “Provisions of the Panchayats (Extension to the Scheduled Areas Act”, 1996, popularly known as the PESA Act or the Extension Act.
  • Ten states have Fifth Schedule Areas- Andhra Pradesh, Telangana, Chhatisgarh, Gujarat, Himachal Pradesh, Jharkhand, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Odisha and Rajasthan.
  • All the ten states have enacted PESA Act amending the respective Panchayati Raj Acts.

Eleventh Schedule

29 functional items are placed within the purview of panchayats. These are:

1. Agriculture, including agricultural extension

2. Land improvement, implementation of land reforms, land consolidation and soil conservation

3. Minor irrigation, water management and watershed development

4. Animal husbandry, dairying and poultry

5. Fisheries

6. Social forestry and farm forestry

7. Minor forest produce

8. Small-scale industries, including food processing industries

9. Khadi, village and cottage industries

10. Rural housing

11. Drinking water

12. Fuel and fodder

13. Roads, culverts, bridges, ferries, waterways and other means of communication

14. Rural electrification, including distribution of electricity

15. Non-conventional energy sources

16. Poverty alleviation programme

17. Education, including primary and secondary schools

18. Technical training and vocational education

19. Adult and non-formal education

20. Libraries

21. Cultural activities

22. Markets and fairs

23. Health and sanitation including hospitals, primary health centres and dispensaries

24. Family welfare

25. Women and child development

26. Social welfare, including welfare of the handicapped and mentally retarded

27. Welfare of the weaker sections, and in particular, of the scheduled castes and the scheduled tribes.

28. Public distribution system

29. Maintenance of community assets.

We hope you understood all about Panchayati Raj Institution for UGC NET Exam.

Thank you.

Team BYJU'S Exam Prep


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