UGC NET Study Notes On Noise Pollution

By Mohit Choudhary|Updated : August 9th, 2022

UGC NET Exam consists of paper-1 and paper-2. Paper- 1 is common for all students, and Paper 2 is subject-specific. Any aspirant who aims to clear NET/NET-JRF has to prepare Paper-1 holistically. The aspirant should aim for 70+ in Paper-1 to qualify for JRF. The environment is the most important section of Paper 1. Every year 5 questions are asked from this section. In today's post, we are providing Study notes on Noise Pollution for UGC NET Exam. Always attempt mock tests to identify your weak areas. Happy learning.


Noise Pollution

  • It is a loud and unpleasant sound created by people or machines that can cause discomfort.
  • Noise is loud, annoying, distracting, intrusive, and physically painful.
  • The noise sources could be road traffic, jet planes, garbage trucks, construction equipment, manufacturing processes, leaf blowers, and boom boxes.
  • The intensity of sound is measured in decibels (dB).
  • If the sound intensity is increased by about 10 dB, it will double the increase in loudness.
  • According to WHO (World Health Organization), a person's hearing can be damaged if exposed to noise levels over 75 dB over a prolonged period.
  • WHO recommended that the sound level indoors should be less than 30 dB.

Properties of sound

1. Loudness

  • It is the intensity and strength of sound perceived by human ears.
  • It is measured in decibels.
  • The intensity of the audible sound is 10 decibels.

2. Frequency

  • It is measured in Hertz.
  • It is defined as the number of vibrations per second.
  • The range of human hearing is 20-20,000Hz.
  • Above 20,000 Hz is called ultrasound, and below 20Hz is called infra-sound.

Effects of Noise Pollution

  • Hypertension: Exposure to loud and unpleasant noise elevates blood levels which can cause hypertension in humans.
  • Annoyance: Irregular and loud sounds cause displeasure to hear and annoy.
  • Physiological effects: The physiological features like breathing amplitude, blood pressure, heart-beat rate, pulse rate, and blood cholesterol are affected.
  • Hearing disability: Constant exposure to loud sound cause damage to eardrums leading to loss of hearing.
  • Sleeping disorder: Excessive and loud noise affect the sleep cycle, leading to low-energy level and fatigue.
  • Human performance: The working performance of workers/humans will be affected as it distracts the concentration.
  • Nervous system: It causes pain, ringing in the ears, and feeling of tiredness, thereby affecting the functioning of the human system.
  • Damage to the material: The buildings and materials may get damaged by exposure to infrasonic/ultrasonic waves and even collapse.


  • Noise level reduction from domestic sectors.
  • Regular maintenance of automobiles leads to the lowering of sound.
  • Loud Speakers should be prohibited.
  • Heavy machinery used in Industries should be regularly maintained.
  • The building should be designed in such a way that it absorbs sound.
  • The planting of trees leads to a reduction in Noise Pollution.
  • Highways traffic should be diverted from cities and towns to bypasses and over-bridges.
  • Workers working in Heavy industries should be provided with protective devices like cotton plugs.

Government Measures

  • Ambient noise level for various areas has been defined by Noise Pollution (Control and Regulation) Rules, 2000.

Category of Area/Zone

Limits in dB


Day Time

Night Time


6 a.m. To 10 p.m

10 p.m. To 6 a.m

A. Industrial Area



B. Commercial Area



C. Residential Area



D. Silence Zone



  • Monitoring noise Pollution in seven metropolitan cities- Mumbai, Delhi, Kolkata, Chennai, Bangalore, Lucknow, and Hyderabad through a network of 70 noise-monitoring stations.
  • Excessive noise is a crime under section 268 of IPC.
  • Environment Protection Act, 1986 has recognized noise as a pollutant.
  • 'Silence Zone'- 100-meter radius around schools, colleges, hospitals, and courts.
  • Section 133 of IPC uses loudspeakers in public as a punishable offense.
  • Central Motor vehicle Rule, 1989 banned pressure horns (sirens and multi-tone horns) except for police vans, fire brigade, and ambulances.

Question for Practice

1. Acceptable "Noise Pollution Level" In India range between:

A. 16-35 dB

B. 40-75 dB

C. 70-100 dB

D. 10-15 dB

Answer in the comment section. 

We hope you all understood Noise Pollution for paper 1 for UGC NET Exam.
Thank you,
Team BYJU'S Exam Prep


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