Study Notes On Mobile Networks For UGC NET

By Ashwani Tyagi|Updated : September 10th, 2021


In our effort to provide you with a series of articles on the topic related to Information and Communication Technology (ICT) for the preparation of UGC NET Paper I, today we are going to learn about Mobile Networks. We all are surrounded by the Mobile network, our day to day life is significantly dependent on these mobile network services. This makes it a relevant topic for the UGC NET Paper I. So, guys let's check out the different generations of mobile networks.

1G and 2G

There never was something called as 1G at first. It basically was a network with only voice call capabilities and only got the name 1G after 2G was put to use.

  • During the 2G era, that lasted for quite a while from 1980s to 2003, there were quite a few advancements made within the spectrum itself such as GSM, GPRS, and EDGE.
  • GSM: Short for Global Systems for Mobile Communication enabled data transfer on top of voice communication at speeds that are seen as a joke today (30-35 kbps). It played a critical role in the evolution as mobile technology as right about the time it was being used mobile phone connectivity and popularity exploded.
  • GPRSGeneral Packet Radio Service operated on the similar 2G technology as GSM with a few refinements with gave it higher data speeds (110 kbps)
  • EDGEEnhanced Data rates for GSM Evolution introduced in 2003 was somewhat known to be 2.9G or 3G due to its significant advancements over GPRS and GSM. It offered high speeds of 135 kbps and continues to be used on many mobile networks even today as is satisfies the basic needs of both carriers and users in various parts of the world.


  • This was a big revolution in terms of technological advancement for network and data transmission.
  • 3G had and has speed capabilities of up to 2 Mbps.
  • It enabled smartphones to provide faster communication, send/receive large emails and texts, provide fast web browsing, video streaming and more security among others.
  • It was widely based on CDMA2000 (Code-division multiple access) and EDGE technologies. Now you might wonder why EDGE? Well, because EDGE was so advanced it was able to provide enough capabilities to be considered as 3G. CDMA2000, on the other hand, operated on similar key concepts but did it better.
  • It enabled multiple channels to communicate at one same thus improvising on the over speed and connectivity.


The 4G standard sets several requirements for mobile networks including mandating the use of Internet Protocol (IP) for data traffic and minimum data rates of 100 Mbps. [LifeWire] which was a huge jump from the 2 Mbps for 3G. It is often referred to as MAGIC

  • M – Mobile multimedia
  • A – Anytime Anywhere
  • G – Global mobility support
  • I – an Integrated wireless solution
  • C – Customized personal service

It is not much to do with the technology it uses but rather than the requirements set forth by the International Telecommunication Union’s Radiocommunication Sector (ITU-R). These standards are known as International Mobile Telecommunications-Advanced (IMT-Advanced). The list of standards is quite complicated and thus were a barrier to the fast adoption of the 4G spectrum.

Soon after 4G, 4G LTE was introduced. LTE stands for Long Term Evolution and it isn’t as much a technology as it is the path followed to achieve 4G speeds. It was a complete redesign and simplification of 3G network architecture, resulting in a significant reduction in transfer latency and thus, increasing efficiency and speeds on the network.


It is still quite in its early stages and the technology likely to appear in the market only by 2020 at the earliest.

  • Goals for future 5G include significantly faster speeds (a minimum of 1 Gbps and perhaps up to 10 Gbps) plus lower power requirements to better support huge numbers of new Internet of Things (IoT) devices.
  • It will have capabilities to provide faster dialling speeds, multiple device connectivity, higher data speeds just to name a few.


There has been a lot of advancements in the field of wireless network communication over the years in terms of overall development and change in core functionality, which has been crucial to putting us in an era that is driven by technology all around us and with 5G a couple of years away, technologies such as IoT, Cloud computing and AI will completely redefine our world by 2025.

What is Call drops?

  • It is a pattern of premature termination of a call are a frequency due to technical glitches or microwave or radio-wave interferences cheated during communication.
  • Mobile phone companies enforce these glitches or premature termination to extract money or monitoring benefits from the consumers.
  • Much of the loss is seen over a fixed plan connection where every call has a fixed pulse of money. This is called as call drop or enforced can drop.
  • TRAI has regulated the telecoms in 2015 to cut down the channel of call drops and said that the maximum frequency of call drop in 24 hours must number of more than 3 per customer.
  • If it goes beyond 3 then the telecoms are liable to pay 3 times the money that the customer has lost.
  • In 2016 Honorable SC has stayed the TRAI regulations and call regulations remain unanswered till date.   

Hope you guys now have a better understanding of the topic of Mobile Networking. If you have any other query, please comment.

Also, checkout the following post on ICT:

Study Notes on Networking for UGC NET Exam

Study Notes on ICT for UGC NET

Thank you!

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Posted by:

Ashwani TyagiAshwani TyagiMember since Jun 2020
UGC NET Qualified 3 times (history)
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Pradyumn Tripathi
Now available in Hindi also.
Chaitanya 1996
Tq very much sir

LijiApr 12, 2021

Sir plz give notes on debugging, bus like terms. I ve seen in question cofuing or tough network related questions

LijiApr 12, 2021

Confusing actually, typing error happened
Akanksha Mishra
Thank you sir...your notes are easy to understand and very useful..

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