Teaching is a process in which a child brings desired change in his/her behaviour with the help of a teacher. It is a method of general principles, pedagogy, and management approach used in classroom instructions. Teaching modifies the feeling, thinking, and doings of the students.
Definition of teaching: According to Clarke, “Teaching refers to the activities that are designed and performed to produce a change in student behaviour”.
Methods of teaching and learning
Methods of teaching should be followed according to the subject matter and tact of the teacher. There are four methods of teaching which present the subject matter:
Telling method: Telling method covers all the aspects of teaching which are delivered orally to the students during the teaching-learning process. This method covers lecture Method, Discussion Method, storytelling Method and so on.
Project Method: This method covers learning by doing aspects of the subject matter in the teaching-learning process. This method covers the project method, problem-solving method, textbook method, etc.
Visual Method: This method covers the seeing aspect of the subject matter in the teaching-learning process. It includes a demonstration method, supervised study method, etc.
Mental Method: This method covers the cognitive aspects of the subject matter. Inductive, deductive, analysis, synthesis methods are included in this method.
Strategies of teaching: Teaching strategy helps the students in learning the desired course of the content and these are the method by which objective of teaching is released in the classroom.
Types of Teaching strategies
Teaching strategies are of two types i.e., Autocratic teaching strategy and Democratic teaching strategy.
A) Autocratic Teaching Strategy:
This strategy uses traditional methods of teaching. In this method, the teacher has full control over teaching and student are not allowed to act freely. This strategy is of four types:
1. Storytelling method: Under this method teacher delivers the content in a story form to the students. This method increases the vocabulary of the student and enhances their vocabulary. This method is useful in teaching languages and social studies.
2. Lecture method: Lecture method is the oldest and one-way communication method of teaching and helpful in developing the cognitive and affective domains of the child. This method is suitable in introducing a new lesson and lays emphasis on presentation.
3. Demonstration method: This method is useful in teaching a practical subject where the content can be understood by only showing.
4. Tutorial Method: Under this method, a class is divided into groups according to the capacities of students. Each group is handled by different teachers. In this method absence of previous knowledge of students should be covered and every child should get the chance to express himself/herself individually. This method is a type of remedial teaching and can be suited in teaching natural science and mathematics subjects.
B) Democratic teaching strategy:
Under this strategy, a child is free to express their views in front of the teacher and maximum interaction between teachers takes place. Here the teacher works as a guide or instructor. It helps in the all-round development of teachers and develops the effective as well as the cognitive domain of students. Six types of methods are covered under this strategy:
1. Discussion Method: Under this method, an oral conversation about a topic takes place between students and teacher. Discussion method develops the thinking and communication power which results in the development of a higher level of the cognitive and affective domain. This method is suited to all subject teaching except maths, art, music, and dance.
2. Heuristic method: Under this method, a teacher raises a problem in front of the student and also guides him. And then students solve the problem after gaining knowledge through self-study, self-learning, through investigation and research.
3. Discovery method: under this method student find the solution to their problems from his own surrounding environment. He draws his own experience and prior knowledge in finding the solution to a problem. It is inquiry-based learning.
4. Project method: Under this method, a project related to real-life experiences is assigned to students by making a group. Students learn and solve real-life problems with each other’s cooperation.
5. Role-playing Method: Under this method roles are assigned to students and student are allowed to play those roles. This technique is an excellent tool for engaging students and develops higher-order thinking in students.
6. Brain-storming: It is a creative method of teaching under which a number of ideas are generated for the solution of a specific problem. This method effectively uses brains to storm the problem.
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