UGC NET Study Notes On Important Terms related to Research Aptitude

By Mohit Choudhary|Updated : August 8th, 2022


Action Research

  • It refers to a wide variety of evaluative, investigative, and analytical research methods designed to diagnose problems or weaknesses in organizational, academic, or instructional places.
  • It further helps educators develop practical solutions to address them quickly and efficiently.
  • The steps of action research involve identification of a problem, data collection, data analysis and interpretation, development of a plan, implementation of a plan, and evaluation of results.
  • This research is also done when educator wants to learn more and improve educational technique.
  • The main aim is to create a simple, practical, repeatable process of iterative learning (Expressive of an action that is repeated with frequency).

Correlational research

  • It is a type of non-experimental research method.
  • This type of research looks back at historical data and observes events in the past.
  • In this, a researcher measures two variables, understands and assesses the statistical relationship between them with no influence from any outside variable.
  • Example- Consider hypothetically; a researcher is analysing a correlation between drinking alcohol and cancer. In this study, there are two variables: drinking alcohol and cancer. Let us say drinking alcohol has a positive association with cancer. This means that by drinking alcohol people are more likely to develop cancer.

Types of correlational research

1. Positive correlation

  • In this when one variable increases, it leads to an increase in the second variable as well.
  • A decrease in one variable sees a decrease in other variables.
  • For example, the amount of money a person has might positively correlate with the number of cars the person owns.

2. Negative correlation 

  • In this, the variables are opposite to each other.
  • An increase in one variable leads to a decrease in another variables and vice versa.
  • For example, the level of increase in education might lower the crime rate in the country.

Explanatory research

  • this type of research focuses on providing an explanation of a problem, situation or happening.
  • This research is conducted to help the researcher to scrutinise the problem that was not studied before deeply.
  • It helps the researcher in understanding the problem but it doesn't give conclusive evidence.
  • In this, the researcher may have to adapt to the new insight or data that he/she may encounter.
  • The purpose of this research is to increase the understanding of a researcher on a certain subject.
  • Commonly used sources in this type of research are secondary sources like published literature or data.

Ex post facto

  • This research is also called as after-the-fact research.
  • In this, the investigation starts after the event has already occurred.
  • It is used to study the association between variables when the researcher has no control over the independent variables.
  • It is used in social science to study human behaviour as it cannot be controlled.

Longitudinal research

  • In a longitudinal study, researchers repeatedly examine the same individuals to detect any changes that might occur over a period of time.
  • Such type of research focuses more on analysing the trend or behaviour changes over a period of time.
  • The daily routine of tracking someone's exercise is longitudinal research.


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We hope you all have understood the important points related to Paper 1 'Mini Series' part 2 on Research Aptitude. For the next Mini-Series, you can drop your suggestions in the comment box.

Thank you

Team BYJU'S Exam Prep.


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