- It refers to a wide variety of evaluative, investigative, and analytical research methods designed to diagnose problems or weaknesses in organizational, academic, or instructional places.
- It further helps educators develop practical solutions to address them quickly and efficiently.
- The steps of action research involve identification of a problem, data collection, data analysis and interpretation, development of a plan, implementation of a plan, and evaluation of results.
- This research is also done when educator wants to learn more and improve educational technique.
- The main aim is to create a simple, practical, repeatable process of iterative learning (Expressive of an action that is repeated with frequency).
- It is a type of non-experimental research method.
- This type of research looks back at historical data and observes events in the past.
- In this, a researcher measures two variables, understands and assesses the statistical relationship between them with no influence from any outside variable.
- Example- Consider hypothetically; a researcher is analysing a correlation between drinking alcohol and cancer. In this study, there are two variables: drinking alcohol and cancer. Let us say drinking alcohol has a positive association with cancer. This means that by drinking alcohol people are more likely to develop cancer.
Types of correlational research
1. Positive correlation
- In this when one variable increases, it leads to an increase in the second variable as well.
- A decrease in one variable sees a decrease in other variables.
- For example, the amount of money a person has might positively correlate with the number of cars the person owns.
2. Negative correlation
- In this, the variables are opposite to each other.
- An increase in one variable leads to a decrease in another variables and vice versa.
- For example, the level of increase in education might lower the crime rate in the country.
- this type of research focuses on providing an explanation of a problem, situation or happening.
- This research is conducted to help the researcher to scrutinise the problem that was not studied before deeply.
- It helps the researcher in understanding the problem but it doesn't give conclusive evidence.
- In this, the researcher may have to adapt to the new insight or data that he/she may encounter.
- The purpose of this research is to increase the understanding of a researcher on a certain subject.
- Commonly used sources in this type of research are secondary sources like published literature or data.
Ex post facto
- This research is also called as after-the-fact research.
- In this, the investigation starts after the event has already occurred.
- It is used to study the association between variables when the researcher has no control over the independent variables.
- It is used in social science to study human behaviour as it cannot be controlled.
- In a longitudinal study, researchers repeatedly examine the same individuals to detect any changes that might occur over a period of time.
- Such type of research focuses more on analysing the trend or behaviour changes over a period of time.
- The daily routine of tracking someone's exercise is longitudinal research.
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