First Amendment Act, 1951
- To protect land reforms and other laws from judicial review 9th schedule was added to the constitution.
- Article 19-Freedom of speech and expression. In this article three more grounds of restriction were added, viz., public order, friendly relations with foreign states and incitement to an offence.
- Further, this restriction was made “reasonable” and , justiciable in nature.
Seventh Amendment Act, 1956
- States were classified into 4 categories Part A, Part B, Part C and Part D. This amendment abolished this classification and reorganised states into 14 states and 6 union territories.
- States, and reorganised them into 14 states and 6 union territories.
- Further, High court could be established for two or more states.
Ninth Amendment Act, 1960
- After India-Pakistan agreement on Berubari Union( West Bengal), this amendment was made to transfer Berubari Union to Pakistan.
Tenth Amendment Act, 1961
- Dadra and Nagar Haveli were the colonies of Portuguese empire till 1954. This amendment added Dadra and Nagar Haveli in the Indian Union.
Eleventh Amendment Act, 1961
- This amendment was about election of the vice-president. Now, Vice-president was to be elected through the electoral college instead of joint meeting of the Lok sabha and Rajya sabha.
Twelfth Act, 1962
- Goa , Daman and Diu were under the Portuguese rule till 1961. This amendment included Goa, Daman and Diu in the Indian Union.
Fourteenth Amendment Act, 1962
- Puducherry was under French rule till 1954. This amendment act included Puducherry in the Indian Union.
Twenty-First Constitutional Amendment Act, 1967
- Eighth Schedule contains the official languages of india. Through this amendment sindhi was included as the 15th language. Presently, there are 22 languages in 8th schedule.
Twenty-Fourth Amendment Act, 1971
- This amendment was made in response of Golaknath case (1967). Supreme court held that Parliament cannot amend any of the fundamental right through constitutional amendment. Through this amendment parliament could any part of the constitution by amending article 13 and article 368.
- Further, through this amendment it was made compulsory for the president to give his assent to a Constitutional Amendment Bill.
Twenty-Fifth Amendment Act, 1971
- This amendment curtailed fundamental right to property. Now right to property is a part of article 300a of the constitution.
- Further, this amendment ‘Provided that any law made to give effect to the Directive Principles contained in Article 39 (b) or (c) cannot be challenged on the ground of violation of the rights guaranteed by Articles 14, 19 and 31.’
Twenty-Sixth Amendment Act, 1971
- Privy purse was given to erstwhile princely states as part of agreement in which they were to integrate with India after Independence.
- This amendment act abolished the privy purses of erstwhile princely states rulers.
Thirty-First Amendment Act, 1972
- Due to increase in population of India revealed through census of 1971, this amendment act increased the seats of lok sabha from 525 to 545.
Thirty-Fifth Amendment Act, 1974
- This amendment act added Tenth Schedule to the constitution of India in which terms and conditions of association of Sikkim with the Indian Union were laid out.
- It also terminated the protectorate status of Sikkim and conferred on it the status of an associate state of the Indian Union.
Thirty-Sixth Amendment Act, 1975
- This amendment act omitted 10th schedule and made Sikkim full-fledged state of India.
Forty-Second Amendment Act, 1976 ( Also known as “Mini-Constitution of India’)
- This amendment act gave effect to the recommendations of Swaran Singh Committee.
- Following are the main amendment:
- Three new words (socialist, secular and integrity) inserted in the Preamble.
- Fundamental Duties of the citizens were added. (new Part IV A).
- Three new Directive Principles (equal justice and free-legal aid, participation of workers in the management of industries and protection of environment, forests and wild life) were added.
- Laws made for the implementation of Directive Principles cannot be declared invalid by the courts on the ground of violation of some Fundamental Rights.
- President is bound of the advice of the cabinet.
- Seats of Lok Sabha and State legislative assemblies were frozen on the basis of 1971 census till 2001.
- Constitutional amendments cannot be judicial reviewed.
- Power of Judicial review curtailed, similarly the writ jurisdiction of the Supreme Court and high courts were curtailed.
- Tenure of Lok Sabha and State legislative assembly increased to 6 years from 5 years.
- National Emergency could be proclaimed in any part of India.
- One-time duration of the President’s rule extended in state from 6 months to one year.
- Five subjects (education, forests, protection of wild animals and birds, weights and measures and administration of justice, constitution and organisation of all courts except the Supreme Court and the high courts)moved to concurrent list from the state list.
- Quorum was abondanod in both Parliament and State legislative assembly.
- All- India Judicial Service could be created.
Forty-Fourth Amendment Act, 1978
- Term of Lok sabha and State legislative assemblies restored to 5 years.
- Quorum provision restored again in both the Parliament and state legislatures.
- Gave constitutional protection to publication in newspaper of true reports of the proceedings of the Parliament and the state legislatures.
- President could send the advice of cabinet once for reconsideration. But if the cabinet sends the same advice again, it would be binding on the president.
- Restored Judicial review power of supreme court and high Court.
- Replaced the term “internal disturbance” by “armed rebellion” in respect of national emergency.
- National emergency could be declared only on the written recommendation of the cabinet.
- Right to property was made only a legal right, removed it from fundamental right.
- Article 20 and Aricle 21 of Fundamental rights cannot be suspended during a national emergency.
Fifty-Second Amendment Act, 1985
- Also called as Anti- Defection Law
- Added 10th schedule in the India constitution. It provided for disqualification of members of Parliament and state legislatures on the ground of defection.
Fifty-Eighth Amendment Act, 1987
- Constitution written in Hindi language given same legal sanctity as of English language.
Sixty-First Amendment Act, 1989
- Voting age reduced from 21 years to 18 years for the Lok Sabha and state legislative assembly elections.
Sixty-Fifth Amendment Act, 1990
- Established multi- member National Commission for SCs and STs in the place of a Special Officer for SCs and STs.
Sixty-Ninth Amendment Act, 1991
- Gave special status to the Union Territory of Delhi by designing it as the National Capital Territory of Delhi.
- Further this amendment also provided for the creation of a 70-member legislative assembly and a 7-member council of ministers for Delhi
We hope you all understood the Important Amendments of the Indian constitution for the UGC NET Exam 2022.
Team BYJU'S Exam Prep.
Commentswrite a comment