Study notes on Important Climate Change Organisations

By Mohit Choudhary|Updated : July 7th, 2022


Intergovernmental Panel on Climate change(IPCC)

  • IPCC Founded in 1988 by the United Nations Environment Program (UNEP) and World Meteorological Organization (WMO).
  • It studies global warming problems at a governmental level.
  • It provides governments of the world with a clear scientific view of what is happening to the world’s climate.
  • 195 countries are currently members of IPCC.

United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC)

  • It came into force on 21 March 1994.
  • It was of the three-convention adopted at the ‘Rio Earth Summit’ in 1992. Others are United convention on Biological Diversity and Convention to Combat Desertification.
  • The UNFCCC secretariat supports all institutions involved in the international climate change negotiations, particularly the Conference of the Parties (COP), the subsidiary bodies (which advise the COP).
  • All subsequent multilateral negotiations on different aspects of climate change, including both adaptation and mitigation, are being held based on the principles and objectives set out by the UNFCCC.
  • COP-1 was held in Berlin, COP-2 in Geneva and the COP-3 in Kyota to adopt the Kyoto Protocol.


  • It was adopted in Kyoto, Japan, on 11 December 1997.
  • It entered into force on 16 February 2005.
  • Its first commitment period started in 2008 and ended in 2012.
  • The major distinction between the Protocol and the Convention is that while the Convention encouraged industrialized countries to stabilize GHG emissions, the Protocol commits them to do so.
  • Kyoto Protocol places a heavy burden on developed countries on the principle of ‘Common but differentiated responsibilities.
  • It has classified countries into:
  • Annex I: These are industrialized countries with ‘economies in transition’. These are mainly centrally-planned (Soviet) economies of Russia and Eastern Europe.
  • Annex II: These are members of OECD (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development).
  • These countries are required to provide financial assistance in reducing greenhouse gases.
  • Annex B: These are countries listed in Annex with first or second round commitment under the Kyoto protocol.
  • Non-Annex I: These are mostly low-income countries. These may volunteer to become Annex I countries when they are sufficiently developed.

Doha amendment to the Kyoto Protocol

  • Adopted on 8 December 2012.
  • Annex I countries commitment to reduce green house gases from 2013 to 2020.


Objectives of the Paris Agreement

  • To restrict global average temperature to well below 2 °C above pre industrial levels and to pursue temperature increase to increase to 1.5°C above pre-industrial levels.
  • The agreement requires all part to give their Nationally determined contributions Plan to reduce green house gases.
  • The Paris Agreement entered into force on 4 November 2016.

India at COP 21

  • India has pledged to reduce emissions intensity per unit GDP by 33-35% of the 2005 level.
  • India has aimed to reach non-fossil fuel installed energy by 40%.
  • The target of 175GW of renewable energy generation by 2022.
  • To enlarge forest cover to absorb 2.5 Billion tonnes worth of carbon dioxide.

COP-22 Marrakesh Action Plan

  • The first session of the Conference of the Parties serving as the Meeting of the Parties to the Paris Agreement (CMA 1) took place in Marrakech, Morocco from 15-18 November 2016.
  • Its mandate was to ensure developed countries to honour the commitment they had made in COP Paris-2015.
  • It is nicknamed as COP of Africa.

COP-23 Bonn Conference

  • This conference was conducted in Bonn, Germany.
  • In this, 15 countries led by Canada and the UK formed an alliance to cut down their use of coal by 2030.
  • ‘Gender Action Plan’ was launched to include women in climate activities.
  • ‘Talanoa Dialogue’ was an important outcome of this conference. It is a year-long process to assess countries progresses on climate change.


  • It was held in Katowice, Poland.
  • It finalized paris rulebook to operationalise the 2015 Paris agreement.


  • UNFCC 25th edition or COP-25 was held in Madrid, Spain.
  • Originally the summit was to be held in Chile but at last minute shifted to Madrid.


  • UNFCC 26th edition or COP-26 will take place in Glasgow, Scotland in 2021.
  • UK government will head this conference with assistance of Scotland.

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