Study Notes on Hacking for Paper-1

By Mohit Choudhary|Updated : June 15th, 2022

UGC NET Exam is conducted twice a year by NTA. There are ten units in Paper-1 and each unit has equal weightage in the examination. Most Important Topics in UGC NET Environment, Logical Reasoning, Teaching Aptitude, Research Aptitude, Communication, ICT, Higher Education.

UGC NET Exam consist of Paper-1 and Paper-2. Paper-1 is common for all students and Paper-2 is subject specific. Information and Communication Technology is the most important section of Paper-1. 5 questions comes directly from this section. Any aspirant who aims to clear NET/NET-JRF will have to prepare all sections of Paper-1 holistically. Today we are providing Study notes on Types of Hacking for UGC NET Exam 2022.


  • It is an attempt to exploit a computer system or a private network inside a computer.
  • It is the unauthorized access to control over computer network security systems for some illicit purpose.
  • Hackers are categorised as White hats(hack their own security system to make it safe), Black hats(hack other system for personal gain) and Grey hats(they are curious hackers who hack to to locate potential loopholes).
  • All types of hacking is illegal except White hats.
  • Bait and Switch, Cookie theft, Distributed denial of service (DDoS), Eavesdropping, Viruses, Keyloggers, Rootkit, Spoofing attack, Packet Sniffer, Trojan horse, Password cracking are various of techniques for hacking.

Bait and Switch

  • In this cyber criminals advertise on website that is selling to third party advertiser.
  • They look genuine with every thing verified.
  • But when the user click on these links they get bobby-trapped with malware.

Cookie Theft

  • Cookies hold wealth of information about the users. Their personal, financial data, user credentials and passwords.
  • Cookies could be stolen by hackers and decrypted to reveal information.
  • Periodically clearing browser and system caches will reduce the number of cookies that could be stolen.

Distributed Denial of Service(DDoS)

  • In this system or network is brought down by overloading them with login attempts.
  • In this sites are bombarded with requests. This lead to increase in traffic on the website.

Computer Virus 

  • A computer virus is a malicious software program loaded onto a user’s computer without the user’s knowledge and performs malicious actions.
  • Stuxnet, Petya, Wanna cry, Code red, Melissa, Sasser, Zeus, Mydoom, Crypto Locker, Flashback are some example of Viruses.
  • The Elk Cloner virus was the first self-replicating computer program to spread on a large scale. It was created by a 15-year-old Rich Skrenta in 1982.
  • Ryuk, Troldesh are ransomware family of newly discovered viruses.

Computer Worm

  • A computer worm is a malicious, self-replicating software program (malware) which affects the functions of software and hardware programs.
  • Stuxnet is the most famous computer worm.


  • Ransomware is a type of malware program that infects and takes control of a system.
  • It infects a computer with the intention of extorting money from its owner.


  • Botnet is a set of networks connected computers/devices that are used for malicious purposes.
  • Each computer in a botnet is called Bot. It is also known as Zombie.

Trojan horse 

  • It is a type of malware that presents itself as legitimate software.
  • It may perform actions on a computer that is genuine but will install malware actions.


  • A keylogger is a type of malware that stores all keystrokes of a computer.
  • It can record all sorts of personal information, such as usernames, passwords, credit card numbers, and personal documents such as emails and reports.
  • Virtual Keyboards are guard against this type of attack.


  • A rootkit is a secret computer program designed to provide continued access to a computer while actively hiding its presence.
  • Rootkits are associated with malware such as Trojans, worms, viruses.


  • Spyware is a software that is installed on a computing device without the end user's knowledge.
  • It steals internet usage data and sensitive information such as usernames and passwords, activating the microphone or camera on a computer to record physical activity.


  • Adware is unwanted software designed to display advertisements on the computer screen to generate income.
  • This type of ads cannot be removed easily.


  • Phishing is a cyber-attack that used to steal user data, including login credentials and credit card numbers.
  • They use email as a weapon and trick the email recipient into believing that the message is received from real companies such as banks, Amazon etc to harvest the recipient’s details. Email Phishing, Spear Phishing (targets special person/organization) are techniques of Phishing.

We hope you all understood the terms related to Hacking for UGC NET Exam 2022.

Thank you, Team BYJU'S Exam Prep.


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