Study Notes on Education in Ancient India for the UGC NET Exam 2022

By Mohit Choudhary|Updated : December 4th, 2022

UGC NET Exam 2022 consist of paper-1 and paper-2. Paper- 1 is common for all students and Paper-2 is subject-specific. Any aspirant who aims to clear NET/NET-JRF has to prepare Paper-1 holistically. Aspirants should aim 70+ in Paper-1 to qualify for JRF. Higher Education is the most important section of Paper-1. Every year 5 questions are asked from this section.     

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In today's post, we are providing Study notes on Education in Ancient India for UGC NET Exam 2022. Always attempt mock tests to identify your weak areas. Happy learning.

Vedic Literature

It consists of four literary works

  1. The Vedas
  2. The Brahmanas
  3. The Aranyakas
  4. The Upanishads

The Vedas

  1. Rig Veda (Collection of Lyrics)
  • it is the oldest in the world.
  • It contains 1028 hymns and 10,580 verses, divided into 10 mandals.
  • It is only in verse.
  1. Sam Veda (Book of chants)
  • It had 1549 verses.
  • This Veda is important for Indian music.
  • It is only in verse.
  1. Yujar Veda ( book of sacrifical prayer)
  • It is divided into two parts- krishna yajur Veda and Shukla Yajur veda.
  • It is both verse and prose.
  1. Atharva Veda (book of magical formulae)
  • It contains charms an spells to ward off evils and diseases.

The Brahmans

  • They explain vedas.
  • Written in prose and ritualistic in nature.
  • It means sacrifice.

The Aranyakas

  • This means 'the forest'.
  • Written by hermits and students living in jungles.
  • They are concluding portions of the Brahmanas.

The Upanishadas

  • They are philosphical in nature.
  • Also called as vednata.
  • They are 108 in numbers.
  • Vrihadaranyaka is the oldest upansihads.


There are six vedangas

  1. Shiksha
  • Pratishakhya is the oldest text on phonetics.
  1. 2. Kalpa Sutras (Rituals)
  2. Vyakrana- Grammer
  • Ashtadhyayi written by Panini is the oldest grammer in the world.
  1. Niryukta- Etymology
  • Nighantu is the oldest word-collection of diffiuclt words the world.
  • Nirukta is the oldest dictionary of the world.
  1. Chhanda (Metrics)
  • Chhandasutras written by Pingal is a famous text.
  1. Jyotisha- Astronomy
  • Vedanga Jyotisha written by Lagadh Muni is the oldest Jyotisha text.


  1. Ayurveda i.e medicine is associted with Rig Veda.
  2. Gandharvaveda i.e Music is associated with Sama Veda.
  3. Dhanurveda i.e Archery is associated with Yajur veda.
  4. Shilpaveda i.e the science of craft is associated with Atharva veda.


There are six school of Indian Philosphy known as Shad- Darshans.

  • Sankhta darshan- kapila (Founder)
  • Yoga Darshan- patanjali(Founder)
  • Nayaya Darshan- Akshapada Gautama (Founder)
  • Vaishesika Darshana- Uluka Kanada(Founder).
  • Purva-Mimansa- Jamini (Founder).
  • Uttara-Mimansa- Badarayana (Founder)

Buddhist Universities




Badagaon, Bihar

Kumargupta I (Gupta Ruler)


Biharsharif, Bihar

Gopala (Pala ruler)


Bhagalpur, Bihar

Dharmpala (Pala ruler)


North Bengal

Dharmpala (Pala ruler)



Rampala (Pala ruler)



Bhattarka (Maitrak ruler)

 Types of Knowledge in jainism

  1. Mati Jnana-  Perception through activity of sense organs.
  2. Shruta Jnana- Knowledge revealed by scriptures.
  3. Avadhi jnana- Clairvoyant perception.
  4. Manahparyaya Jnana- Telepathic Knowldge.
  5. Keval Jnana- Temporal Knowledge.

Scientific Literature




Aryabhatiya, Surya Sidhant




Panch Sidhanta, vrihat Samhita, Vrihat Jataka, Laghu Jataka


Ashtanga hridaya (medicine)




Mahabhaskarya, laghubhaskarya



We hope you understood all about Education in Ancient India for UGC NET Exam 2022.

Thank you

Team Byju's Exam Prep.



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