Study Notes On Digital Initiatives In Higher Education For UGC NET Paper 1

By Mohit Choudhary|Updated : September 22nd, 2022

UGC NET Exam is conducted twice a year by NTA. There are ten units in Paper-1 and each unit has equal weightage in the examination. Most Important Topics in UGC NET Environment, Logical Reasoning, Teaching Aptitude, Research Aptitude, Communication, ICT, Higher Education.

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  • A one-stop portal for Education Loans & Scholarships.

SWAYAM ( Study Webs of Active Learning for Young Aspiring Minds)

  • Under the ‘Digital India’ initiative of Government of India, Important thrust area is ‘Massive Online Open Courses (MOOCs)’.
  • MHRD, Government of India has embarked on a major initiative called ‘Study Webs of Active Learning for Young Aspiring Minds’ (SWAYAM): to provide an integrated platform and portal for online.


  • The SWAYAM PRABHA is a group of 34 DTH channels devoted to telecasting of high-quality educational programmes on a 24X7 basis using the GSAT-15 satellite.
  • Every day, there will be new content for at least four hours which would be repeated 5 more times in a day, allowing the students to choose the time of their convenience.
  •  The channels are uplinked from BISAG, Gandhinagar.
  • The contents are provided by NPTEL, IITs, UGC, CEC, IGNOU, NCERT and NIOS. The INFLIBNET Centre maintains the web portal.

National Academic Depository (NAD)

  • The vision of National Academic Depository (NAD) is born out of an initiative to provide an online storehouse of all academic awards.
  • National Academic Depository (NAD) is a 24X7 online storehouse of all academic awards viz. certificates, diplomas, degrees, mark-sheets etc. duly digitised and lodged by academic institutions/boards/eligibility assessment bodies.
  • NAD not only ensures easy access to and retrieval of an academic award but also validates and guarantees its authenticity and safe storage.
  • National Academic Depository comprises of two interoperable digital depositories viz. CDSL Ventures Limited (CVL) and NSDL Database Management Limited (NDML).
  • These digital depositories have ensured hardware, network facilities and software of prescribed quality for smooth and secured operationalisation of NAD.

National Digital Library of India (NDL India)

National Digital Library of India (NDL India) is an all-digital library that stores information (metadata) about different types of digital contents including:

  • books,
  • articles
  • videos
  • audios
  • thesis and
  • other educational materials relevant for users from varying educational levels and capabilities.

It provides a single-window search facility to access digital contents currently existing in India as well as other digital sources under a single umbrella.

E-Shodh Sindhu (eSS)

  • The MHRD has formed e-Shodh Sindhu merging three consortia initiatives, namely UGC-INFONET Digital Library Consortium, NLIST and INDEST-AICTE Consortium to provide access to peer-reviewed journals and a number of bibliographic, citation and factual databases in different disciplines to the Research and academic community in the country.

Virtual Labs

  • Virtual Labs project is an initiative of the Ministry of Human Resource Development (MHRD), Government of India under the aegis of National Mission on Education through Information and Communication Technology (NMEICT).
  • This project is a consortium activity of twelve participating institutes and IIT Delhi is coordinating institute.
  • It is a paradigm shift in ICT-based education
  • An initiative has been taken-up in remote‐experimentation
  • Under Virtual Labs project, over 100 Virtual Labs consisting of approximately 700+ web-enabled experiments were designed for remote-operation and viewing.


  • Project e-Yantra is an initiative to spread education in Embedded systems and Robotics by IIT Bombay sponsored by Ministry of Human Resource Development through the National Mission on Education through ICT (NMEICT).

Talk to a Teacher program

  • A-VIEW is part of Talk to a Teacher program coordinated by IIT Bombay and we are funded by the Ministry of Human Resource Development (MHRD) under the Indian Government’s National Mission for Education using Information and Communication Technology (NME-ICT) along with various other projects in Virtual Labs, Haptics and Natural Language Processing.

Integrated e-Content Portal

  • A portal to host all e-content project, developed/funded under the National Mission of Education through ICT.
  • The portal would provide facility to search and browse all hosted content wherein a learner can easily access the desired material including audio/video learning material, textual material, multimedia enriched materials etc. through a single interface.


  • This project on 'Creating Digital-learning Environment for Design' also called 'e-kalpa' is sponsored by the Ministry of Human Resources, Government of India as part of the National Mission in Education through Information and Communication Technology.

FOSSEE (Free/Libre and Open Source Software in Education)

  • FOSSEE project promotes the use of FLOSS tools to improve the quality of education in our country.
  • We aim to reduce dependency on proprietary software in educational institutions.
  • The FOSSEE project is part of the National Mission on Education through Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Ministry of HumanResource Development (MHRD), Government of India.


  • VIDWAN is the premier database of profiles of scientists/researchers and other faculty members working at leading academic institutions and other R & D organisation involved in teaching and research in India.
  • It provides important information about expert's background, contact address, experience, scholarly publications, skills and accomplishments, researcher identity, etc.
  • The database developed and maintained by Information and Library Network Centre (INFLIBNET) with financial support from the National Mission on Education through ICT (NME-ICT).
  • The database would be instrumental in selection of panels of experts for various committees, taskforce, established by the Ministries / Govt. establishments for monitoring and evaluation purposes.

Spoken Tutorial 

  • The Spoken Tutorial project is the initiative of the ‘Talk to a Teacher’ activity of the National Mission on Education through Information and Communication Technology (ICT), launched by the Ministry of Human Resources and Development, Government of India. 
  • Spoken Tutorial is a multi-award winning educational content portal. 
  • All the content published on this website is shared under the CC BY SA license.  
  • The Spoken Tutorial project is being developed at IIT Bombay for MHRD, Government of India.


  • Baadal: A MHRD initiative developed as NME-ICT Cloud for academic purpose. 
  • Baadal is a cloud orchestration and virtualization management software initiated by MHRD under NMEICT scheme and developed and maintained by IIT Delhi.
  • It ensures optimum utilization of the infrastructure and speeds up the development and deployment of eGov applications for academic needs.

It is hosted in NIC data-centre. Some of the main features of Baadal are:

  • Dynamic resource scheduling and power management.
  • An integrated workflow system for request and commissioning of virtual machines.
  • Facilities for suspending, resume shutdown, power off, power on and specifying resource requirement of virtual machines.
  • Dynamic resource utilization monitoring.
  • Under this project, we help government and semi Government institutes to accommodate their infrastructure needs without taking care of management issues.

     Baadal is open source project, we help institutes to setup their private cloud.

Global Initiative of Academic Networks (GIAN)

  • Global Initiative of Academic Networks (GIAN) in Higher Education aimed at tapping the talent pool of scientists and entrepreneurs, internationally to encourage their engagement with the institutes of Higher Education in India.
  • to augment the country's existing academic resources,
  • to accelerate the pace of quality reform, and
  • to elevate India's scientific and technological capacity to global excellence.

National Institutional Ranking Framework (NIRF)

  • The National Institutional Ranking Framework (NIRF) was approved by the MHRD and launched by Honourable Minister of Human Resource Development on 29th September 2015.
  • This framework outlines a methodology to rank institutions across the country.
  • The methodology draws from the overall recommendations broad understanding arrived at by a Core Committee set up by MHRD
  • to identify the broad parameters for ranking various universities and institutions.
  • The parameters broadly cover “Teaching, Learning and Resources,” “Research and Professional Practices,” “Graduation Outcomes,” “Outreach and Inclusivity,” and “Perception”.

IMPRINT- (IMPacting Research INnovation and Technology)

  • IMPRINT is the first of its kind MHRD supported Pan-IIT + IISc joint initiative to address the major science and engineering challenges that India must address and champion to enable, empower and embolden the nation for inclusive growth and self-reliance.
  • This novel initiative with twofold mandate is aimed at:
    (a) Developing new engineering education policy
    (b) Creating a road map to pursue engineering challenges
  • IMPRINT provides the overarching vision that guides research into areas that are predominantly socially relevant.

SAKSHAT: A One Stop Education Portal

  • It was launched on October 30, 2006, by His Excellency, the then President of India to facilitate lifelong learning for students, teachers and those in employment or in pursuit of knowledge free of cost to them.
  • The content development task for ‘SAKSHAT’ was looked after by the Content Advisory Committee (CAC) for the respective subject, which consisted of representatives from educational institutions like IGNOU, Delhi University, Kendriya Vidyalaya Sangthan (KVS), Navodyaya Vidyalaya Sangthan (NVS), National Institute of Open Schooling (NIOS) and National Council for Educational Research and Training (NCERT) and prominent academicians in the field.
  • The vision is to scale up this pilot project ‘SAKSHAT’ to cater to the learning needs of more than 50 crore people through a proposed scheme of ‘National Mission in Education through Information and Communication Technology (ICT

Atal Ranking of Institutions on Innovation Achievements (ARIIA)

  • Atal Ranking of Institutions on Innovation Achievements (ARIIA) is an initiative of Ministry of Human Resource Development (MHRD), Govt. of India to systematically rank all major higher educational institutions and universities in India on indicators related to “Innovation and Entrepreneurship Development” amongst students and faculties.

Major Indicators for consideration

Assessment of innovation and startup ecosystem in HEIs will be based on Seven parameters with certain weights allocated as below.

  • Budget, Expenses to Support & Revenue Generated   (20 Marks).
  • Infrastructures & Facilities to Support Innovations and Start-ups   (10 Marks).
  • Awareness Activities for Promoting Idea Generation and Innovation   (20 Marks).
  • Promotion and Supporting Entrepreneurship Development   (20 Marks).
  • Intellectual Property (IP) Generation, Technology Transfer and Commercialization   (14 Marks).
  • Innovative Learning Methods & Courses   (10 Marks).
  • Innovations in Governance of the Institution   (6 Marks).


It is a digital initiative by the government of India for students to verify and check the college/University in which they are going to enrol for their higher education.
It is for all types of colleges/institutions

It is a PAN India initiative.


  • DigiLocker is a platform for issuance and verification of documents & certificates in a digital way, thus eliminating the use of physical documents.
  • Indian citizens who sign up for a DigiLocker account get a dedicated cloud storage space that is linked to their Aadhaar (UIDAI) number.
  • Organizations that are registered with Digital Locker can push electronic copies of documents and certificates (e.g. driving license, Voter ID, School certificates) directly into citizens lockers.
  • Citizens can also upload scanned copies of their legacy documents in their accounts
  • These legacy documents can be electronically signed using the eSign facility.

       The main technology components of the DigiLocker system are:

  • Repository: Collection of e-documents that is exposed via standard APIs for secure, real-time access.
  • Access Gateway: Secure online mechanism for requesters to access e-documents from various repositories in real-time using URI (Uniform Resource Indicator).
  • DigiLocker Portal: Dedicated cloud-based personal storage space, linked to each resident’s Aadhaar for storing e-documents, or URIs of e-documents.

The National Programme on Technology Enhanced Learning (NPTEL)

  • The National Programme on Technology Enhanced Learning (NPTEL) was initiated by seven Indian Institutes of Technology (Bombay, Delhi, Kanpur, Kharagpur, Madras, Guwahati and Roorkee) along with the Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore in 2003.
  • Five core disciplines were identified, namely, civil engineering, computer science and engineering, electrical engineering, electronics and communication engineering and mechanical engineering and 235 courses in web/video format were developed in this phase.

         The main goal of NPTEL

  • to build on the engineering and core science courses launched previously in NPTEL Phases, at the undergraduate and postgraduate levels and management courses at the postgraduate level.

OSCAR (Open Source Courseware Animations Repository)

  • Project OSCAR (Open Source Courseware Animations Repository) provides a repository of web-based interactive animations and simulations, that we refer to as learning objects (LOs).
  • Students and teachers can view, run and download these learning objects.


  • “ShodhGangotri”, research scholars/research supervisors in universities are requested to deposit an electronic version of approved synopsis submitted by research scholars to the universities for registering themselves for the PhD programme.
  • The repository on one hand would reveal the trends and directions of research being conducted in Indian universities, on the other hand, it would avoid duplication of research.
  • Synopsis in “ShodhGangotri” would later be mapped to full-text theses in "ShodhGanga".
  • As such, once the full-text thesis is submitted for a synopsis, a link to the full-text theses would be provided from ShodhGangotri to "ShodhGanga"

Virtual Learning Environment

  • VLE, an online environment of e-resources caters to several disciplines taught at undergraduate and postgraduate level.
  • It is an initiative of the Institute of Life-Long Learning, University of Delhi
  • Drawing from several successful Moodle models, the multi-media interactive contents loaded on VLE are categorized discipline-wise. ]
  • The lessons are developed by highly qualified faculty members across the universities and are continually edited and reviewed, primarily by discipline-expert Fellows employed to edit, oversee and coordinate the content.
  • VLE also contains multimedia repository in form of audio, video and short films to expose students to new technologies in pedagogy.

Text Transcription of Video content

  • The text of video lectures has been obtained through manual processes and is therefore error-prone.
  • There is no claim to accuracy on the text content provided in this site. 
  • The text will be used to create metadata and search index and the time coding on the video will be used to provide markers on the video for easy search of the video content.
  • The project to provide transcription of all videos published by NPTEL is an on-going project and delays are unavoidable.

SOS Tools 

  • Software and simulation packages are useful tools for the analysis of systems and solving problems by the students of Science, Social Science, Engineering, Management and related disciplines.

         The objective of this project is

  • to develop software tools for analysis of systems and computations, create adequate manpower
  • to teach students to use open-source software and
  • to develop simulation tools.

       The developed software should be user friendly and properly documented. Such packages, tailored to suit the needs of our students will be ported on Sakshat for making         freely available to any student, teacher or institution willing to use them.

e-PG Pathshala

  • e-PG Pathshala is an initiative of the MHRD under its National Mission on Education through ICT (NME-ICT) being executed by the UGC.
  • The content and its quality is the key component of the education system, high quality, curriculum-based, interactive e-content in 70 subjects across all disciplines of social sciences, arts, fine arts and humanities, natural & mathematical sciences, linguistics and languages have been developed by the subject experts working in Indian universities and other R & D institutes across the country.
  • Every subject had a team of principal investigator, paper coordinators, content writers, content reviewers, Language editors and multimedia team.

This article will help you out to understand the major initiative in higher education for the UGC NET Exam.

Preparation Tips for upcoming UGC NET EXAM 2022

  • Check the full syllabus and examination pattern of UGC NET EXAM thoroughly
  • Start preparing for the exam with a time schedule
  • Practice with the previous year’s question papers and their solution
  • Keep revision of all topics from the topics on a daily basis
  • Check your progress with mock tests
  • Study carefully and do maintain your health.

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