Study Notes on Deductive and Inductive Reasoning (Part II)

By Ashwani Tyagi|Updated : July 23rd, 2021

UGC NET Exam is conducted twice a year by NTA. There are ten units in Paper-1 and each unit has equal weightage in the examination. Most Important Topics in UGC NET Environment, Logical Reasoning, Teaching Aptitude, Research Aptitude, Communication, ICT, Higher Education.

In our previous post "Study Notes on Deductive and Inductive Reasoning (Part I)" we got to learn about the nature of Deductive and Inductive reasoning along with their features. Now, we are going to look in differences between the two of them and the other variety of reasonings along with some practice questions.

 

Difference between deductive and inductive reasoning

Basis for comparison

Deductive Reasoning

Inductive Reasoning

Definition

Deductive reasoning is the form of valid reasoning, to deduce new information or conclusion from known related facts and information.

Inductive reasoning arrives at a conclusion by the process of generalization using specific facts or data.

Approach

Deductive reasoning follows a top-down approach.

Inductive reasoning follows a bottom-up approach.

Starts from

Deductive reasoning starts from Premises.

Inductive reasoning starts from the Conclusion.

Validity

In deductive reasoning conclusion must be true if the premises are true.

In inductive reasoning, the truth of premises does not guarantee the truth of conclusions.

Usage

Use of deductive reasoning is difficult, as we need facts which must be true.

Use of inductive reasoning is fast and easy, as we need evidence instead of true facts. We often use it in our daily life.

Process

Theory→ hypothesis→ patterns→confirmation.

Observations-→patterns→hypothesis→Theory.

Argument

In deductive reasoning, arguments may be valid or invalid.

In inductive reasoning, arguments may be weak or strong.

Structure

Deductive reasoning reaches from general facts to specific facts.

Inductive reasoning reaches from specific facts to general facts.

 

Informal Reasoning

Informal reasoning refers to the use of logical thought, and the principles of logic, outside of a formal setting. Basically, informal logic uses the application of everyday knowledge, education and thinking skills to analyze and evaluate information. It allows people to rationalize the communications they see on a daily basis, whether through social media, television, websites, etc. Two strategies used in informal reasoning are to analyze and evaluate. To analyze means to examine the details of information to come to a conclusive picture at the end of the analysis; on the other hand, to evaluate means to determine the merit or worth of something.

Example of informal formal reasoning includes-

a) The doctor who seeks to determine the best treatment.

b)  A factory owner who wants to increase production.

   

Abductive reasoning       

Abduction reasoning is a method of reasoning in which one chooses the hypothesis that would, if true, best explain the relevant evidence. Abductive reasoning starts from a set of accepted facts and infers most likely, or best, explanations.

 Example: "When it rains, the grass gets wet. The grass is wet, it must have rained.

Practice Questions:

1) Which type of arguments is considered as particular to general?

a) Deductive arguments

b) Inductive arguments

c) Informal arguments

d) Abductive arguments

 

Ans- b)

          Inductive arguments are that argument which takes specific information and makes broader generalised arguments. It is considered as particular to general.

    

2) Premises – All cats have long tails.

                          John is a dog.

      Conclusion- Therefore, John has tails.

       What type of argument is it?

a) Deductive arguments

b) Inductive arguments

c) Informal arguments

d) Abductive arguments

 

Ans- a) Deductive arguments are that argument which starts from general statements and check the possibilities to reach a specific, logical conclusion. It is considered as general to particular.

 

  3)     Premises-      Australia has won 5 cricket world cups

          Conclusion- Therefore, Australia will win the upcoming cricket world cup.

        What type of argument is it?

a) Deductive arguments

b) Inductive arguments

c) Informal arguments

d) Abductive arguments

 Ans- b)

          Inductive arguments are that argument which takes specific information and makes broader generalised arguments. It is considered as particular to the general. Here, specific information (Australia has won 5 world cups) is taken to conclude that Australia will upcoming cricket world cup.

Hope you guys now have a better understanding of the topic of Deductive and Inductive Reasoning. Must visit for the Part I of this series. If you have any other query, please comment.

Study Notes on Deductive and Inductive Reasoning (Part I)

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Posted by:

Ashwani TyagiAshwani TyagiMember since Jun 2020
UGC NET Qualified 3 times (history)
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SRUTHI PULLAGURLA
What is premises???
Tarik Ahmad

Tarik AhmadApr 18, 2020

Thank you sir.
Deeksha Rai

Deeksha RaiApr 19, 2020

Sir hindi me bhi...,
Supriya Gorai
Very nice thank you sir.
Shusma Devi

Shusma DeviApr 26, 2020

Thank you Sir gi
Shreedevi Basarigidad
Thank you and send this type notes plz
Manisha Sarkhel
Now it is almost clear.

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