UGC NET Study Notes On Cyclones

By Mohit Choudhary|Updated : August 9th, 2022

The Year 2020 saw two cyclones formation over the Indian Ocean, one over Bay Bengal and another over the Arabian Sea. Cyclone Nisarga was formed over the Arabian Sea and landed over Mumbai after a gap of 129 years. Cyclone Amphan was formed over the Bay of Bengal and made landfall over Odisha. Cyclones are formed regularly over the Bay of Bengal, but the Arabian Sea saw cyclones for a long period. The Environment is the most important section of UGC NET EXAM 2020. Prepare everything that is in the news about Environment.

What is Cyclone?

  • A cyclone is the formation of a very low-pressure system with very high-speed winds revolving around it.
  • It is characterized by inward spiraling winds that revolve around a low-pressure zone.
  • The cyclonic rotates anti-clockwise in the northern hemisphere and clockwise in the southern hemisphere. The reason is Coriolis force.

Tropical Cyclone

These violent storms originate in tropical areas over oceans and then move towards the coastal areas, leading to huge amounts of rainfall and destruction due to violent winds.

Factors affecting the formation of Cyclones

  • Temperature higher than 27 degrees Celsius over the sea.
  • Coriolis force is zero at the equator, so no cyclones are formed there.
  • Small variation in vertical wind speed
  • High Humidity leads to the formation of Cumulonimbus clouds.
  • Weak low-pressure area.

Structure of Cyclone

  • Eye- It is found at the center of a severe tropical cyclone.
  • Eye Wall- The eye is surrounded by a circular Eyewall, which withghest surface wind.
  • Spiral bands- these look like they spiral into the center of a cyclone. Here convergence and divergence of air occur.

Regional Name of tropical cyclones

  • North Atlantic and North East Pacific ocean- Hurricanes
  • The Indian Ocean and South Pacific ocean- Cyclones
  • Western Pacific and south china sea- Typhoons
  • Western Australia- Willy-Willies

How are Cyclones named?

  • Regional Specialised Meteorological Centres (RSMC) and Tropical Cyclone Warning Centres(TCWC) name the cyclone worldwide.
  • There are six RSMCs and five TCWCs, including the India Meteorological Department.
  • The Indian weather bureau has been mandated with the duty to name cyclones that develop over the North Indian ocean, including the Arabian Sea and Bay of Bengal, by following a standard procedure.
  • World Meteorological Weather Organization and United Nations Economic and Social Commission for the Asia Pacific began to name cyclonic storms in 2000.
  • The Indian Meteorological Department names cyclonic storms rising in the North Indian Ocean.
  • In the Indian Ocean region, 8 countries (India, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, Maldives, Myanmar, Oman, and Thailand) started givNamesName to cyclonic storms in 2004 on the initiative of India.
  • All countries contributed a set of names assigned sequentially based on the first Alphabet of the member country.
  • As soon as the cyclone reaches an area of these 8 countries, a predefined Name is given to this cyclone. These 8 countries have suggested 8 names each.
  • The cyclones' naming culture recognizes the threat and compels the countries to take necessary precautionary measures to mitigate the damage.
  • Cyclonic Storm formed over East-central Arabian Sea has been named Nisarga. Bangladesh suggested the Name in the new list.
  • IMD released a list of cyclone names in April 2020 as suggested by the 13 countries.

Benefits of Naming Cyclones

  • The practice of naming storms started to help quickly identify storms in warning messages because names are presumed to be far easier to remember than numbers and technical terms.
  • To provide communication between forecasters and the general public regarding forecasts and warnings.
  • Short, distinctive Name is easier to understand and communicate across different regions.
  • So that media could report and help disseminate information quickly to people living near coastal areas and alert the authorities.

Why does Bay Bengal see more cyclones than the Arabian Sea?

  • In addition to the storms that originate in the southeast Bay of Bengal and the adjoining Andaman Sea, breakaway typhoons over the Northwest Pacific move across the South China Sea into the Bay of Bengal, intensifying into cyclones.
  • In contrast, Arabian Sea cyclones are mostly their formations and generally move north-west, away from India's west coast.
  • Besides, the Arabian Sea is colder than the Bay of Bengal, which inhibits the formation and intensification of the cyclonic system in the former. 
  • Warm sea surface temperature is an ideal platform for cyclones.

We hope you all understood Cyclones for UGC NET EXAM.

Thank You, team BYJU'S Exam Prep.

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