Elements of Cognition:
Following are the elements of cognition:
1. Perception: It is the capacity of an individual to see, hear, or become aware of something through the senses.
2. Memory: Memory is the cognitive element in cognition. Memory allows the human mind to store, code, or recover information from the past whenever needed.
3. Attention: Under this process, our mind allows us to concentrate on various activities with the use of our senses.
4. Thought: Thoughts are the active processes of thinking. Thoughts help us in establishing the relationship between events and knowledge by integrating all the information that we received.
5. Language: Language and thoughts are interrelated with each other. Language is the ability to express our thoughts with the help of spoken words.
6. Learning: Learning is the acquisition of knowledge or skills through study, experience, and modifying behaviour.
Cognitive characteristics of children:
Cognitive development is the capability to think and understand. According to Piaget the four stages in cognitive development are:
1. Sensorimotor stage: This age starts from birth to 2 years of age. At this stage, the child learns through their senses.
2. Preoperational stage: This stage starts at 2 years and lasts up to 7 years of age. At this stage memory and imagination of a child develops. Here the child is egocentric in nature.
3. Concrete Operational Stage: This stage starts from 7 years and lasts up to 11 years. Egocentric thoughts diminish here. Operation thinking develops in this stage.
4. Formal operational stage: This stage starts from 11 years of age and above. At this stage, children develop problem-solving ability and the use of logic.
Emotions are strong feelings acquired from one's circumstances, mood, or relationships with others. Emotions are part of a state of mind.
Nature and features of emotions:
1. Emotion is a subjective experience.
2. It is a conscious mental reaction and emotions and thinking are inversely related.
3. Emotions have two resources i.e. direct perception or indirect perceptions.
4. Emotion creates some external changes which can be seen by others in the form of our facial expressions and behaviour pattern.
5. Emotions create some internal changes in our behaviour which can be understood only by the person who has experienced those emotions.
6. Emotions are necessary for adaptation and survival.
7. Most distracting emotion is being uninformed or misinformed.
Components and factors of emotions:
One of the main components of emotion is expressive behaviour. Expensive behaviour is the outward sign that emotion is being experienced. Outward signs of emotions are fainting, a flushed face, muscle tension, facial expressions, tone of voice, rapid breathing, restlessness or another body language, etc.
Importance of emotions in education:
The following points explain the importance of emotions:
1. Positive emotions reinforce the child’s learning while negative emotions like depression affect the learning process.
2. The intensity of any emotion may affect learning whether it is pleasurable or annoying emotions.
3. Learning takes place smoothly when students are not mentally disturbed.
4. Positive emotion increases our motivation at a task.
5. Emotion helps in personal development as well as in the learning of a child.
|Serial No.||Book Name||Author Name|
|1.||CTET and TETs Child Development and Pedagogy Paper 1 and 2||Arihant Experts|
|2.||CTET Child Development and Pedagogy for Paper 1 and Paper 2||By Pearson (Sandeep Kumar)|
|3.||Educating Exceptional Children: An Introduction to Special Education||Mangal S.K|
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