Logical Reasoning Study Notes.
a. Arguments: The structure of arguments deals with the basic term, the validity of arguments, converting sentences into their logical form depending on the requirement, and then application of rules follows so as to arrive at a conclusion.
b. Structure of argument: An argument, in general, is a form of communication that tries to persuade its audience to adopt a particular position about a topic. Arguments have three main parts, such as a claim that states the position to be argued; reason that logically explain why the claim should be accepted and evidence that supports the reasons with facts, anecdotes, statistics, expert testimony, and examples. The reasoning has to be systematic and logical.
c. Validity of argument
- Valid argument: If an argument is valid, it is a valid deduction, and if its premises are true, the conclusion must be true.
- A valid argument can not have true premises and a false conclusion.
- The validity of an argument depends, however, not on the actual truth or falsity of its premises and conclusions, but solely on whether the argument has a valid logical form or not.
- The conclusion of a valid argument with at least one false premises may have been either true or false.
d. Invalid argument: In invalid argument conclusion does not follow the premises. It means that the reasoning process behind the inferences is not correct.
Q 1: Select the code, which is not correct in the context of the deductive argument with two premises:
(A) An argument with one true premise, one false premise and a false conclusion may be valid.
(B) An argument with two true premises and a false conclusion may be valid.
(C) An argument with one true premise, one false premise and a false conclusion may be valid.
(D) An argument with two false premises and a false conclusion may be valid.
Solution: An argument with two true premises and a false conclusion must be invalid. An argument with true premises, the conclusion must be true.
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