Here we are posting the second part of Ancient Indian Universities notes. This is the most important section in Higher Education for Paper-1.
- Pushpagiri located in ancient Kalinga, present-day Odisha.
- It is older than Nalanda University.
- The university spreads across three adjoining hills- Lalitgiri, Ratnagiri and Udayagiri.
- It was an ancient Buddhist Mahavihara or monastic complex located atop Langudi Hill.
- It is mentioned in the writings of Xuanzang, a Chinese traveller.
- The visit of Xuanzang shows that the Pushpagiri was an important Buddhist site in ancient India.
- It flourished between the 3rd and 11th centuries CE
- Odantapuri University was set up in Odantapuri, Bihar.
- It was a Buddhist Mahavihara.
- It was founded by the Pala Emperor Gopala I in the 8th century.
- It is considered the second oldest of India's Mahaviharas after Nalanda University.
- The university attracted students from far and near areas but it could not get the status or fame that was attained by Nalanda or Vikramshila.
- Subject taught ranged from Buddhism to Vedic scriptures.
- The prominent personality of this University was Acharya Sri Ganga of Vikramshila.
- Vikramashila and Nalanda University are the two most important centres of learning in India during the Pala Empire.
- It is located in Antichak village, Bhagalpur district in Bihar.
- It was founded by the Pala emperor Dharmapala (783-820 AD).
- The main reason for founding Vikramshila University was the decline in quality scholarship at Nalanda.
- The learning centre also housed several temples.
- Subject taught were Logic, Philosophy, Vyakaran, Karamkanada, Shastra and more.
- It prospered for about four centuries before it was destroyed by Bakhtiyar Khilji along with the other major centres of Buddhism in India around 1193.
- Vikramashila is known to us mainly through Tibetan sources, especially the writings of Tāranātha, the Tibetan monk historian of the 16th–17th centuries.
- Somapura Mahavihara located in Paharpur, Badalgachhi Upazila, Naogaon District, Bangladesh.
- It was designated as a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1985.
- It was established by Pala king Dharmapala in the late 7th century.
- Subject taught ranged from Hinduism, Buddhism and Jainism.
- It flourished for more than 400 years till 12th century.
- Xuanzang, a Chinese scholar resided at the Somapura Mahavihara (the largest university in ancient India).
- The earliest form of the Bengali language began to emerge during the eighth century.
- Bikrampur Vihara is located at Raghurampur village, Bikrampur, Munshiganj District in Bangladesh.
- It is one built by Dharmapala in the late 7th century.
- The university has a connection to Atiśa, an important figure in Tibetan Buddhism.
- During the time of Atiśa, Bikrampur University was the centre of Buddhist education.
- Some 8,000 students and professors came to study here as far as China, Tibet, Thailand, and Nepal.
- Jagaddala Mahavihara is presently located in North Bengal, Bangladesh.
- It was a Buddhist monastery.
- It was founded by the Rampala, ruler of the Pāla dynasty(c. 1077-1120).
- The subject taught ranged from Sanskrit, Vajrayana Buddhism.
- Also, a large number of Tibetan sacred texts were composed at Jadaddala university.
- It is located at the confluence of Ganga and Jalangi rivers in Bengal.
- It was set up after the destruction of Takshashila and Nalanda University.
- Subject taught were Logic, Politics, Law and Vyakaran.
- Prominent scholar produced from this university was Jaideva who composed Gita Govind.
- It is ancient University located on the banks of the Krishna river.
- It is named after famous Buddhist scholar Nagarjuna.
- Archaeological evidence suggests that the university and its library flourished within the 7th century.
- Subject taught ranged from medicine, mineralogy, geography, science to philosophy and teachings of Buddhism
Try Online Classroom Program Now and get unlimited access to 12+ structured live courses and 200+ Mock tests.
We hope you all understood the Ancient Universities of India for Paper-1.
Thank you, Team gradeup.