The Mughal Empire
- The Mughals were originally Turks. They belonged to the Chagatai branch of the Turkish race.
- The period of the Mughal empire is known as Second Classical Age. First Classical Age is the period of Guptas.
- Mughal Empire is also known as Timurid Empire because of its relation to Amir Timur.
- Mughal Emperors are 20 in number. They ruled India from 1526 to 1857.
- Only six are considered great They are:
- Zahiruddin Muhammed Babur (1526 - 1530)
- Naziruddin Mirza Muhammed Humayun (1530 - 40 & 1555 - 1556)
- Jalaluddin Muhammed Akbar - (1556 - 1605)
- Nuruddin Muhammed Jahangir (1605 - 1627)
- Shahabuddin Muhammed Shah Jahan (1628 - 1658)
- Muhiyuddin Muhammed Aurangazeb Alamgir (1658 - 1707)
Babur (1526-1530) Facts:
- Babur, the founder of the Mughal Empire, was the fifth descendant of Timur on the Father’s side and the fourteenth descendant of Chengizkhan on the mother's side.
- Babur was born in Farghana in Turkey on 14 Feb. 1483 as the son of Umer Sheik Mirza and Qulik Nigarkhanum.
- Babur’s father Umershiek Mirza was the grandson of Amir Timur and the ruler of Farghana.
- Babur became the ruler of Samarkhand at the Age of 11.
- He captured Kabul in 1504. Then Babur attacked India 5 times for want of wealth.
- Babur’s first Attack on India was in 1519. Bhera was the first place captured by Babur.
- In 1524 Daulatkhan, Ibrahim Lodhi’s brother invited Babur to India.
- On 21 April 1526 Babur defeated Ibrahim Lodhi, the last Lodhi Sulthan in the First Battle of Panipat.
- On 16 March 1527, he defeated Rana Sangha of Mewar, in the Battle of Khanwa.
- The Rajputs in 1528 under Medini Raj of Malwa fought against Babur in the Battle of Chanderi but were defeated.
- In 1529 the Afghans under Muhammed Lodhi fought against Babur in the Battle of Ghaghra but were defeated.
- In 1530 December 26, Babur died and was cremated in Kabul.
- Babur was the first to use Artillery in India.
- His memoirs or autobiography ‘Tuzuk-i-Baburi or Baburnamah were written in the Turkish language, Babur’s mother tongu. Babur said ‘I don't like India and Indians’.
- Babur was the first Mughal ruler to keep in hand the Kohinoor Diamond.
- Babur was a contemporary of Krishnadeva Raya of the Vijaya Nagara Empire.
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