Year of establishment
Important Points to Remember
- For the conservation and sustainable utilization of wetlands.
- Known as Waterfowl convention.
- India is part of it.
- There are currently 27 Ramsar sites in India.
- For International protection of the environment.
- UNEP was the result of it.
Convention on International Trade in Endangered species of Wild Flora and fauna (CITES)
- Control or prevent international commercial trade in endangered species or products derived from them.
- Known as Washington Convention.
- Legally binding.
Convention on Migratory Species (CMS)
- Convention on the Conservation of Migratory Species of Wild Animals.
- Also, known as the Bonn Convention.
- It is under the aegis of the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP).
- For achieving sustainable developments.
- The 10th anniversary of Stockholm.
- For the protection of the ozone layer
- It does not include legally binding reduction goals.
- To control Ozone-depleting Substances
- It is a protocol to the Vienna Convention for the Protection of Ozone Layer.
- Universal treaty (Ratified by all UN countries).
- Legally binding.
- Target only ozone-depleting substances (Not GHG i.e. Hydro Fluorocarbons).
- To give the concept of "sustainable development".
Earth Summit/ United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED)/ Rio Declaration
- Environment conservation & Development
- It had 27 principles.
- Three legally binding agreements were opened for signature:
- It is a product of Earth Summit, 1992.
- Agenda 21 refers to the 21st Century.
- Reducing greenhouse gas emissions to combat global warming.
- Environmental treaty produced at the Earth Summit, 1992.
- Secretariat: Bonn, Germany
- Legally non-binding.
- Kyoto Protocol was negotiated under this framework.
Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD)
Three main goals:
- Conservation of biological diversity (or biodiversity).
- Sustainable use of its components.
- Sharing the benefits of genetic resources fairly and equitably.
- Legally binding.
- The USA has signed but not ratified.
- The two protocols to CBD are:
(a) Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety, 2000
(b) Nagoya Protocol (Biodiversity Accord), 2010
- Convention to Combat Desertification
- Headquarter: Bonn, Germany
- Only convention that came out from direct recommendations of Rio Agenda 21.
- Legally Binding.
- Canada withdrew.
Kyoto Protocol (COP 3)
- To fight global warming by reducing greenhouse gas concentrations.
- Negotiated under UNFCC.
- Came into force in 2005.
- Binding targets to Annex I countries.
- Mechanisms under protocol:
(a) Clean Development Mechanism (CDM)
(b) Emission Trading
(c) Joint Implementation (JI)
- This protocol applies to follow GHGs (Annex A):
(a) Carbon Dioxide (CO2)
(b) Methane (CH4)
(c) Nitrous Oxide (NO2)
(d) Sulphur Hexafluoride (SF6)
(e) Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs)
(f) Perfluorocarbons (PFCs)
- The Protocol is based on the principle of shared (Common) but differentiated responsibilities.
- It places the obligation on developed countries to reduce current emissions on the basis that they are historically responsible for the current levels of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere.
- Annex I countries: industrialized countries and economies in transition.
- Annex II countries: developed countries which pay for costs of developing countries.
- Non-Annex I countries: Developing countries.
- India is Non-Annex party to UNFCC.
- There are two commitment periods:
(i) 2008 – 2012
(ii) 2013 – 2020
Note: The second commitment period was agreed on in 2012, known as the Doha Amendment to the protocol.
- Prior Informed Consent Procedure for Certain Hazardous chemicals and pesticides in International Trade.
- Protecting biological diversity from potential risks posed by living modified organisms resulting from modern biotechnology.
- Eliminate or restrict the production and use of persistent organic pollutants.
- UN Treaty.
- The US is not a party to this treaty.
- Intergovernmental Forum on Chemical Safety (IFCS) and the International Programme for Chemical Safety (IPCS) prepared a list, known as the Dirty Dozen.
REDD & REDD+
- Reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation in developing countries.
- Negotiated under UNFCC since 2005.
- UN-REDD was launched in 2008. India did not participate in it.
- REDDD+ (Defined in Bali Action Plan, 2007, CoP13)
- REDD+ extends to:
(a) Sustainable Forest Management.
(b) Conservation of Forests.
(c) Enhancement of carbon sinks.
- Access to genetic resources and a fair and equitable sharing of benefits arising from their use of the Convention on Biological Diversity.
- It is a supplementary agreement to the CBD.
- Conference on Sustainable Development
- 20th Anniversary of Rio Earth Summit 1992.
Paris Agreement (COP 21)
- It will come into force by 2020.
- Not legally binding.
- This century, global temperature rises well below 2 degrees Celsius above circa-industrial level.
- Pursue efforts to limit the temperature upsurge even further to 5 degrees Celsius.
- Greenhouse gas emissions per unit of GDP- by 33 to 35 per cent below 2005 levels by the year 2030.
- By 2030, 40 per cent of its energy would be generated from non-fossil fuels.
- Increase its forest cover to create an additional carbon sink equivalent to 2.5 to 3 billion tons of carbon dioxide by 2030.
Note: Recently the US has withdrawn from it.
- Reduce Ozone Layer Depletion
- It amends the 1987 Montreal Protocol.
- Its aims to reduce Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) by roughly 80-85 Percent by late 2045.
- It will be binding on member countries from 2019.