UGC NET Study Notes On Bibliography

By Mohit Choudhary|Updated : August 8th, 2022

Research Aptitude Is the most important section of paper 1. Every year 5 questions come directly from it. If any aspirant aims to clear NET/NET-JRF, this section must be covered holistically. Today, we are providing study notes, Bibliography and different citation methods. Always attempt a mock test to identify your weak areas after reading a topic.



  • It is a list of all the sources researcher have used in the research work.
  • Bibliography includes the following :
  • Name of the Author:
  • Title of Work
  • Publishing house name and location
  • Date of publishing
  • The page number of source

Difference between Bibliography, Annotated bibliography and Works cited page 

  • Works cited page is a list of every work cited in the text of a paper.
  • A bibliography is a list of every work researcher used while writing a paper, whether or not it was specifically cited.
  • An annotated bibliography is a bibliography with a short note by the author explaining the significance of the source.

Bibliography format

1. American Psychological Association

  • Author’s last name, first name. (year of publication).Book Title.Publication Place: Publisher
  • Example: 
  • Stokes, E. 1959. The English Utilitarians and India. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
  • Sinha, N.K. 1962. Economic History of Bengal. Vol. 2. Calcutta: Firma K.L. Mukhopadhyay.


  • Author’s last name, first initial. (Date). Title of Article. Title of Encyclopedia(Volume Pages). City of Publication: Publishing company
  • Example
  • McGhee, K., & McKay, G. (2007). Insects. In Encyclopedia of animals (p.175). Washington, D.c.: National Geographic Society.

Newspaper and Magazine

  • Authors last name, first name. (Publication date). Article title. Periodical title, volume number (issue number if available), inclusive pages.
  • Example
  • Bagchi, Alaknanda (1996): “Conflicting Nationalisms: The Voice of the Subaltern in Mahasweta Devi’s Bashai Tudu,” Tulsa Studies in Women’s Literature, Vol 15, No 1, pp 41–50.


  • Author’s name. (Date of publication). Title of the article. Title of Periodical, volume numbers, Retrieved month day, year, from full URL.
  • Example
  • Uri, J. (2019, June 14). Fifty years ago: Nearly one month to boots in the lunar dust. Retrieved from

2. Chicago Manual Style

  • Citation in Chicago Manual Style is cited in footnotes and not in Bibliography


  • Author’s last name, first name. Title of Work. Publication Place: Publisher, Publication Year.
  • Example
  • Kerouac, Jack. The Dharma Bums. New York: Viking Press, 1958


  • Last Name, First Name. Encyclopedia/Dictionary name, Edition ed., s.v. “Article Title.” Publication City: Publisher Name, Year Published.
  • Example
  • Smith, John. Encyclopaedia Britannica, 8th ed., s.v. “Internet.” 20 vols. Chicago: Encyclopaedia Britannica, 2009

Newspaper and magazine

  • Last name, First name. “Article Title.” Magazine Title, Month Date, Year of publication.
  • Example
  • Bowman, Lee. “Bills Target Lake Erie Mussels.” The Pittsburgh Press, March 7, 1990.


  • Last Name, First Name. “Page Title.” Website Title. Web Address (retrieved Date Accessed).
  • Example
  • Smith, John. “Obama inaugurated as President.” (accessed February 1, 2009).

3. Modern Language Association (MLA)


  • Last Name, First Name. Title of Book. City of Publication, Publisher, Publication Date.
  • Example
  • Henley, Patricia. The Hummingbird House. MacMurray, 1999.


  • Last Name, First Name. “Article title.” Encyclopedia/Dictionary name. Year Published. Medium.
  • Example
  • Smith, John. “Internet.” Encyclopedia Britannica. 2009. Print.


  • Author’s Last name, First name. “Title of the Article or Individual Page.” Title of the Website, Name of the Publisher, Date of Publication in Day Month Year format, URL.
  • Example
  • Haider, Suhasini “Indian Army denies Chinese accusations, says PLA fired warning shots in the air” The Hindi, 08 September 2020,

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We hope you all understood the above-given Study Notes on Bibliography for the upcoming UGC NET Exam 2022.

Thank you,

Team BYJU'S Exam Prep


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