About Teaching Learning Material:
Language is a medium through which one can express one’s ideas, thoughts, feelings, and messages. Language teaching is somehow a difficult task as it is basically conditioned by the nature of the subjects. So for making the teaching interesting, a teacher can take the help of teaching-learning materials. While selecting the teaching-learning materials, a teacher should ensure that the skills of reading, understanding, listening, and speaking can be developed.
The aids used by the teacher or facilitator in the classroom to make his teaching more understandable and effectively are known as the teaching-learning materials or teaching aids. It can be big or small and can be bought or made easily by both the teacher or students. For example, blackboard, map, chart, globe, tape recorder, etc.
Teachers should use teaching-learning materials in an appropriate way. It not only helps students to enhance their learning but also make their learning permanent. Before selecting the teaching aids, teachers should first think about their practical use and assess whether the aim of using aids i.e., the purpose of teaching can be achieved or not. The aids should be student-oriented and should be selected systematically to fulfil the purpose.
Characteristics of Teaching-Learning Materials:
Some of the characteristics of teaching-learning materials are given below:
- Teaching aids can be found easily whether in a market or can be made by teacher or students.
- Teaching aids are cheap and easy to carry.
- Teaching aids should be simple and able to adjust to classroom situations.
- Teaching aids make lessons enjoyable and interesting for the students.
- These aids save time, energy and the burden of a teacher.
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Objectives of Teaching-Learning Materials:
The objectives of using teaching-learning materials are given below:
- Teaching aids make every student an active participant in the classroom.
- Teaching aids help students to relate to what is being taught to real-life situations.
- Teaching aids provide reinforcement for better learning.
- They make the learning permanent among the students.
- They develop the perception of the students towards the content.
Types of Teaching-Learning Materials:
Teaching-learning materials can be classified into three types i.e., audio aids, visual aids, and audio-visual aids.
1. Audio Aids:
Aids that facilitate learning by using the sense of hearing are known as audio aids. These aids help a teacher, especially in language teaching. For example, radio, tape recorder, audio cassette player, Linguaphone, etc.
- Radio: With the help of radio, students can improve comprehension through listening. Also, they can correct their pronunciation drill.
- Tape recorder: By recording, students can record their voices and can correct their mistakes by listening to their voices. It helps the students to correct their speech and can also improve their reading skills.
- Linguaphone: It provides self-study language courses. students can learn proper speech patterns.
- Language Laboratory: It is an audio or audio-visual installation used as an aid in modern language teaching.
2. Visual Aids:
Aids that facilitate learning by using visual organs are known as visual aids. These aids help in the attaining of Bloom's teaching objective i.e., cognitive, affective, and psychomotor. For example, radio, tape recorder, audio cassette player, Linguaphone, etc. Some examples of visual aids are Blackboard, charts, maps, flannel board, flashcards, globe, etc.
- Blackboard: It is used by the teachers in schools for writing on with chalk. A teacher can explain the difficult topic with the help of diagrams and figures on the blackboard.
- Charts: A chart contains a drawing that shows information in a simple way, often using lines and curves. Colorful charts provide interest in learning among the students.
- Maps: It is a diagrammatic representation of an area of land or sea showing physical features, cities, roads, etc.
- Flannel board: It is a board covered with flannel fabric, usually resting on an easel.
- Flashcards: It is a card containing a small amount of information, held up for pupils to see, as an aid to learning.
3. Audio-Visual Aids:
The aids that engage in both the sense organs and visual organs of the students are known as audio-visual aids. These aids help in the attaining of Bloom's teaching objective i.e., cognitive, affective, and psychomotor. For example, the LCD project, Film projector, TV, Computer, VCD player, Virtual Classroom, Multimedia, etc.
- Television: It helps the students in understanding concepts, enrich vocabulary and pronunciation by providing some educational programs, quizzes, news bulletins, etc.
- The Computer: A computer is a device that can be instructed to carry out sequences of arithmetic or logical operations automatically via computer programming. Students can save important topics on a computer for their reference.
- Filmstrip: It is a common form of still image instructional multimedia, once commonly used by educators in primary and secondary schools, overtaken at the end of the 1980s by newer and increasingly lower-cost full-motion videocassettes and later on by DVDs.
- Slide projector: It is a device that is used to view photographic slides using optical and mechanical methods. It contains an electric light bulb. focusing lenses. the reflector and condensing lenses. a holder that holds the slide.
Apart from these teaching-learning aids, a Textbook is also one of the most common teaching-learning materials used by English language teachers in the teaching-learning process.
A textbook is an area in which the language material presented is prescribed for teaching and learning. A good textbook not only teaches but also tests the knowledge of students. The content of the book should be very clear, a proper beginning is required to prepare the learners for the upcoming content and a perfect conclusion is required to assemble the entire learning.
- An advantage of using textbooks: Textbooks give a great contribution to the teaching-learning process both to the teachers and to learners. They offer a framework of guidance and orientation. However, apart from numerous advantages a single textbook frequently does not meet the diverse needs of the learners. Textbooks works as a fruitful resource for learners, it provides a guideline for students for the curriculum.
- Purposes: The textbook plays an important role in the teaching and learning process. Textbook adaptations at the activity level, unit level, and syllabus level are an integral part of the course-developing process which assists the teacher in meeting the learners’ specific work-related needs.
- The strategy should be followed for book reading: Introducing the learners to the concept of the lessons before starting the reading, and reading the lessons in units is quite helpful to remember the facts about the chapter. Pictures, graphs, etc. are always considered to be the most attractive part of the textbooks, which makes the reading and understanding part quite influencing.
Selection of Teaching-learning materials:
- Objective attainment
- simple and educative