Learning Development Theories
Approaches to Learning Theories:
1. Behaviourism Theories are given by Thorndike, Pavlov, Watson, Hull, Tallman, Skinner
Main idea: Learning brings a change in Behaviour.
Central idea: Stimulus is present in the external environment.
Use in Education: Desired change in behavior (of the students).
Teacher’s role: Facilitating the child and making a conducive environment for gaining the desired outcome.
2. Cognitivism theories are given by – Jean Piaget, Kurt Lewin.
Main idea: Process based on internal functioning like insight, memory, perception, thinking, information processing, etc.
Central point: Internal cognitive structures.
Use in education: Developing capacities and potentialities based on Cognitive attitude.
Teacher’s role: Focusing on Cognitive Aspects.
3. Constructivism: Theories are given by Lev Vygotsky, Bruner
Main Idea: Knowledge is a constructed entity.
Central Point: We construct the understanding of this whole world based on making sense of the experiences.
Use in Education: Learning processes must be based on primary and sole Concepts, not just factual information.
Teacher’s role: Social aspects must be given an appropriate place.
4. Gestalt Theory Theories are given by Kohler, Koffka, Wertheimer.
Main idea: Higher-order Cognitive Aspects and processes continuing in the brain.
Central Idea: Every piece of Cognitive information is passed into our brain in meaningful patterns or as an organized whole.
Use in education: Already Gained experiences and knowledge must be applied to solve a problem and learning should be considered as “It’s for problem-solving”.
|Serial No.||Book Name||Author Name|
|1.||CTET and TETs Child Development and Pedagogy Paper 1 and 2||Arihant Experts|
|2.||CTET Child Development and Pedagogy for Paper 1 and Paper 2||By Pearson (Sandeep Kumar)|
|3.||Educating Exceptional Children: An Introduction to Special Education||Mangal S.K|
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